Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Selected Chemical Agents against Phytopathogenic Fungi Spores

T. C. Otegwu, G. O. Adeshina, J. O. Ehinmidu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/38306

Postharvest deterioration has been a major problem associated with yam storage for both famers and traders and it is caused mostly by micro-organisms especially fungi. During the storage of yam, many organisms such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum and Rhizopus stolonifer are often reported to cause rotting of the stored yams. The aim of this research is to find out the antifungal effect of some commonly used anti-dermatophytic agents, (Fluconazole, Terbinafine Hcl, Ketoconazole, Sodium propionate and Griseofulvin) on the above named fungi spores. This was carried out using zone of inhibition, MICs, MFCs, FICs and FFCs to measure the antifungal activities of the test antifungal agents against the isolated phytopathogenic fungi spores. These agents were found to have fungitoxic effects on the test organisms in the order of: Terbinafine Hcl > Fluconazole > Ketoconazole > Sodium propionate > Griseofulvin. This work indicated that the test antifungal agents were able to inhibit the fungi spores that are widely reported to be associated with yams rot when stored. The observation in this study showed that a good and efficient fungicide against the test organisms that are known to cause yam rot during storage can be effectively arrested with combination of these fungicides.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Remedies Used for Livestock by Farmers in Southern Senatorial Zone, Plateau State, Nigeria

Bata Shalangwa Ishaku, Dawurung Christiana Joshua, Garba John, Bot Christopher, Abraham Kabans, Abdulateef Habiba, Agwu Eunice, Kujul Nimzhi Boukur, Akinyera Adebukola, Udokainyang Akaninyene Dickson

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/32433

Survey of the plant remedies used by livestock farmers in Southern Senatorial Zone of Plateau State was carried out using structured questionnaire. A total of 150 structured questionnaires were distributed to livestock farmers in three selected Local Government Areas of Southern Senatorial zone Plateau State. Of the 150 questionnaires distributed 142 were completed and retrieved. Information obtained from the respondents showed that livestock farmers in the study area are aware of ethno-veterinary remedies and also use them for the management of common livestock diseases. A total of 49 plant species from 11 families used to treat the 23 livestock diseases in the study area were identified. The study revealed that the plants identified are used either singly or in combination with parts of different plants. Based on the plant parts used, the result showed that barks are most frequently used (50.7%), followed by the leaf (40.8%), the seed (35.2%) and root (18.3%). About 85.9% of the plants used in the study area are sourced from the bush. More so, 76.1% are available all year round while 14.1% are used in preserved form and 9.9% are cultivated during the wet season. The plants identified are either used as processed, wet or in dry form. The result showed that greater percentage of the famers keep small ruminants (43.0%), followed by poultry (26.1%) dogs (16.0%), and pigs (4.7%). About 41.0% of the livestock farmers keep animals for income, 26.0% for meat and income, 14.0% for security, 10.0% for meat and 0.1% for income and security.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of Methanolic Extract of Grewia nervosa L. (Family: Tiliaceae) Leaf

Md. Sharif Ahammed, Md. Shariful Islam, Md. Mosiqur Rahman, Sabiha Ferdowsy Koly, Kamruzzaman Rakib, Sonia Zaman, Rajesh Goswami, Mst. Shirajum Munira, Shumaya Islam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-33
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42674

Aims: The methanolic extract of Grewia nervosa L. leaves belongs to the family of Tiliaceae. The purpose of this study was to evaluate total phenolics, total flavonoids,  total proanthocyanidins, total antioxidant capacity, iron reducing power capacity, free radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, anti-acetylcholinestrase activity, anti-butyrylcholinestrase activity, metal chelating activity, total flavonols, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and phytochemical screening.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between April 2015 to June 2015 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: Antioxidant activity and neuroprotective activities were determined by several standard methods. Phytochemical screening was done by characteristic colour changes or colour precipitate using standard phytochemical reaction methods.

Results: The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of different extracts of G. nervosa was assessed by a slightly modified Ellman coupled enzyme assay. IC50 of the crude extract and its fractions petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CLF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and aqueous fraction (AQF) was found to be 17.07 µg/ml, 15.08 µg/ml, 135.57 µg/ml, 274.78 µg/ml respectively. In butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory assay, the lowest activity was found in PTEF with IC50 value 15.79 and the highest activity was found in CLF with IC50 value 7.55. The crude methanol extract and its different fractions showed considerable total antioxidant activity and reducing capacity. In DPPH scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, the crude methanol extract showed 79.54% and 89.54% scavenging having IC50 of 11.36 and 15.06 μg/ml respectively. Among the fractions, ethyl acetate exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 of 14.98 μg/ml, while the petroleum ether fraction exhibited the lowest activity with IC50 of 553.09 μg/ml. In hydroxyl radical scavenging activity aqueous fraction exhibited the highest scavenging activity with IC50 of 14.84 μg/ml, while petroleum ether fraction exhibited the lowest activity with IC50 of 33.39 μg/ml. In the lipid peroxidation assay, crude methanol extract showed significant inhibition of peroxidation at all concentrations, with IC50 of 54.41 μg/ml. Among the fractions, ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated the highest activity with IC50 of 33.46 μg/ml.

Conclusion: Observing the in-vitro studies, it can be concluded that the methanolic extract of G. nervosa leaves could be used in different diseases because of its effective pharmacological properties. So, further studies are recommended to isolate the exact compounds responsible for this activity and their efficacy needs to be tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Seeds of Delonix regia (Hook) Raf on the Liver, Kidney and Spleen of High-fat Diet Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Female Wistar Rats

Blessing M. Onyegeme-Okerenta, Philip O. Ogboye, Comfort Monago-Ighorodje

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/43640

Background: Plants have been relied upon by people for treatment, control and management of diabetes. The local residents around University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, use cooked Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. Seeds as food supplement for the management of diabetes.

Aim: Based on the available evidence on this plant species, this study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorative potentials of aqueous cooked and uncooked seed extracts of Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. On the liver, kidney and spleen of high-fat diet streptozotocin-induced diabetes in female Wistar rats.

Methods: Forty-eight rats were grouped into eight. Group 1 served as normal control and was fed with normal diet. The diabetic state was achieved by feeding the rats with high-fat diet which contained 20% sucrose, 20% lard and 60% grower mash for six weeks, followed by 40 mg/kg body weight of a single dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Seven days after induction of diabetes, rats in group 2 did not receive any treatment and were designated as the negative control. Rats in groups 3 (Positive control) and 4 (Second positive control) received metformin 100mg/kg and metformin/vildagliptin 50/25 mg/kg body weight respectively as standard drugs while groups 5 to 8 designated (A1), (A2) (B1) and (B2) respectively, were induced and treated daily with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight orally cooked seeds (A1), (A2) and uncooked seeds (B1), (B2) extracts for six weeks. Blood was obtained through cardiac puncture after the rats were anaesthetised and sacrificed. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and spleen were studied.

Results: Both extracts significantly (p<0.05) decreased the bilirubin, potassium, bicarbonate concentrations, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities as well as granulocyte count in dose and time-dependent manner when compared to group 2 respectively. Photomicrographs of the spleen of diabetic untreated rats showed significant hemosiderin pigment deposition compared to the splenic architecture of the normal rats. Treatment with Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf extracts prevented hemosiderin pigment deposition in groups 5 to 8. 

Conclusion: This study, therefore, provides useful resources about the ameliorative potentials of seed extracts of Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in female Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Evaluation of Euphorbia hirta on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) Cells and in Albino Rats

J. G. Gotep, O. O. Oladipo, E. T. Doku, T. M. Asala, M. M. Eki, H. B. Yusuf, B. O. Akanbi, S. Isa, B. B. Dogonyaro, P. A. Okewole, A. A. Atiku, M. S. Ahmed, C. I. Nduaka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/22203

Aim: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo exposure effects of Euphorbia hirta decoction on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells and in albino rats, respectively.

Materials and Methods: Extract of the plant was obtained after boiling and the filtrate dried. In vitro cytotoxic effect was evaluated on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK-21) cells by examination of cell morphology under the microscope after exposure to 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml concentrations of extract while the in vivo toxicity on some biochemical; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, Albumin, Urea, Creatinine and electrolytes), haematological (Full Blood Count) and histological (Liver and Kidney) indices were evaluated after daily oral administration of the extract to four groups (n =8) of  albino rats at dose of 0, 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg body weight, respectively for 14 days.

Results: In vitro evaluation showed a concentration dependent increase in cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells ranging from dark single particles indicative of early sign CPE at 25 µg/ml to severe CPE and apoptosis at 200 µg/ml. The in vivo evaluation revealed significant increases (p<0.05) in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP with values ranging from 11-15, 22-35 and 168-308 iu/l respectively in serum when compared to the control group. The concentrations of urea (243.71-270.60 mmol/lit) and creatinine (168.07-280.71 µmol/lit) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the test groups compared to the control group. Histopathological examination of the liver and kidney revealed varying degrees of alterations (sinusoidal dilatation, congestion, haemorrhage, centrilobular degeneration, tubular necrosis and tubular degeneration).

Conclusion: The decoction of Euphorbia hirta is cytotoxic to BHK-21 cells and toxic to the liver and kidney of albino rats at the tested concentrations and dosages respectively. Until safe doses are determined, its uncontrolled consumption should be discouraged.