Open Access Short Research Article
Aim: Abelmoschus moschatus have been extensively used in traditional medicine as well as in perfume industries. The primary goal of the present research was to develop an efficient plant regeneration protocol of Abelmoschus moschatus from aseptic seedling explants such as cotyledon, internode, leaf and root.
Methodology: The seeds of Abelmoschus moschatus were surface sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride and 70% ethanol were cultured on ½ MS basal media for developing aseptic seedlings Aseptic seedling explants were cultured on different concentrations of auxins for callus induction. Later callus was transferred on to different concentrations of cytokinins for shoot regeneration and for in vitro, rooting different concentrations of auxins were used. Finally, such in vitro developed plantlets were acclimatized.
Results: Half strength MS medium with 1% sucrose was used for raising aseptic seedlings. Maximum of 92% response of callus induction was obtained from leaf explants on MS medium + 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. An average of 2.4 shoots per callus were observed on MS + 2 mg/L benzyl-6-aminopurine from leaf explant. The regenerated shoots were best rooted on 1/2 MS + 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The regenerated plantlets were established with 70% survival.
Conclusion: An efficient plant regeneration protocol of Abelmoschus moschatus was developed.
Open Access Original Research Article
The present study was done to record the ethnobotanical information from hill -dwelling aboriginal tribes of the undivided Puri district (Khurda and Nayagarh), Odisha, India. The aim was also to gather the information on medicinal uses of plants by conducting personal interviews with socio-economically backward tribals and to record the accumulated knowledge with the snowball technique. Plants were identified by the users on forest floor and were botanically classified. This study recorded the use of different parts of 52 plant species belonging to 51 genera of 28 different flowering plant families, against 61 human ailments, with special reference to Asthma, Stomach disorder, and Fever. The healers use these plants to cure several diseases like asthma, stomach disorder, skin diseases, piles, constipation, diabetes, fever, cough, toothache, wound healing, headache, leucorrhea, infertility in women, mouth ulcer, heart pain, pimples, indigestion, snake bites, ring worms, thirst, eczema, dysentery, diarrhoea, blood purification, high blood pressure and sore throat. These plants are used as herbal healing sources as a part of cultural practice of local traditional healers down the ages. Among these plants, many are specific to the climate identified zone of the hilly forest patches of the district. The present record of ethnomedicinal data indicated that the backward local ethnic people use plants from their surroundings, as healing sources for all possible ailments. It was revealed from the study that the commonly used plants for the treatment of asthma and malaria, are A. vasica, A. marmelos, A. galangal, C. crista, C. sepiaria, N. arbor-tristis, R. dumentorum, S. indicum and V. negundo.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: Strychnos henningsii (Gilg) (Loganiaceae) has been used for treatment of various health conditions such as gastrointestinal complications, rheumatism and snake bites. However, the safety of extracts from S. henningsii has not been evaluated. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of S. henningsii leaves and root extracts with the view of determining if their use poses health risk.
Methodology: Acute and sub-acute toxicity was conducted in accordance with OECD guidelines. Swiss white mice were randomly selected and divided into 24 groups (n = 6) for acute (single administration) and sub-acute toxicity (28 days administration) studies. The mice were fasted overnight and graded doses of the aqueous extracts were orally administered to the tested groups at a dosage ranging from 75 to 2500 mg/kg. The control groups were orally administered with plain water. Clinical signs, mortality, fasting glucose levels, alanine transaminases, blood urea nitrogen and haemoglobin were evaluated. At the end of study, organs were harvested and processed for histopathology.
Results: In all the groups, there were no mortalities. The clinical signs which were noted in mice administered with extracts ranging from 750 mg/kg and above included: dullness, raised skin fur, staggering, reduction in locomotion and in food consumption, and mucoid stool. There were no significant (P>0.05) changes in body weight and the levels of fasting glucose, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen and alanine transaminases in the studied mice. Histopathology evaluation of organs of mice from sub-acute toxicity study administered dosages from 750 mg/kg showed mucoid enteritis and exfoliation. The loss of hepatolobular arrangement, periportal infiltration with inflammatory exudate in the liver and congestion of renal blood vessels was observed at a dosage of 2,500 mg/kg of root extract.
Conclusion: The study showed no mortality up to dose of 2,500 mg/kg. In addition sub-acute administration of dosages up to 750 mg/kg had no effect on the biochemical and hematological parameters. However, at histopathology dosages above 750 mg/kg bwt showed intestinal, hepatic and renal pathological alterations. The study recommends that the plant extracts may be safe at dosages below 750 mg/kg bwt.
Open Access Review Article
Background: It is highly laborious to determine biological activities of plants using colours, despite the use of spectroscopic methods. Therefore the review is aimed at using colours to determine the phytochemical and medicinal properties of plants.
Methods: Literature was searched for medicinal plant parts whose colours solely depend on their phytochemical pigments. Primary colours (green, red and blue) were cross-matched to give yellow, orange, brown, cyan, magenta and purple.
Results: Each of the reflected colour is suggestive of phytochemical pigment(s) with specific medicinal properties. Black coloured plants and plant parts may be toxic and so can be used to treat cancer and cancer-related diseases. White phytochemical pigments may be used to treat diabetes, hypertension, asthma and some inflammatory diseases. Because previous studies have shown that the colours have the medicinal values.
Conclusion: The combination of primary colours (red, green and blue) can form over 1000 colours with different medicinal values that may be found in both lower and higher plants.
Open Access Review Article
It is estimated that there will be an increase in the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the coming decades. Thus, the pharmacological attributes of products of plant origin should be considered as an important economic and scientific strategy in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives, since their experimental validations are indispensable to substantiate the reliability of these products in the treatment of chronic diseases. Like biologically active compounds, Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8- cineole, is the major constituent of the leaf oil of eucalyptus species, such as Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus tereticornis. It is a terpenoid oxide, free of steroid-like side effects. This study is based on a review of the specialised literature with purpose to discuss the biological effects of Eucalyptol in the respiratory system and its interaction with some of the most promising targets in the treatment of COPD, such as: receivers and membrane channels, oxidative stress, transcription and expression of cytokines, cell adhesion molecules and neutrophil chemotaxis, proteases and remodeling.