Open Access Original Research Article

Antisickling and Radical Scavenging Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants and Compounds from Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC. Cham

Christianah A. Elusiyan, Opeyemi Ayoade, Adewale O. Adeloye, Felix O. Olorunmola, Joseph M. Agbedahunsi, Abiodun O. Ogundaini

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42706

Aims: This study investigated the antisickling and radical scavenging activities of different morphological parts of nine plants, belonging to six families. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out on Mitracarpus villosus (Sw.) DC. Cham, which was one of the most active plants.

Place and Duration of Study: Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile Ife, Nigeria between May 2013 and June 2016.

Methodology: Plant materials were collected from OAU campus and Ile-Ife town, identified and voucher specimen deposited at IFE herbarium, OAU for future reference. In-vitro radical scavenging and antisickling (by haemoglobin polymerization inhibitory test) activities of extracts and isolated compounds were performed using ascorbic acid and vanillic acid as positive controls respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation was achieved by combination of various chromatographic procedures and bioassay techniques to isolate the active constituents. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was by spectroscopic techniques including NMR and MS.

Results: Six of the nine plant extracts showed considerable antisickling and antioxidant activities. Extracts of Emilia praetermissa and M. villosus, were however the most active. Extracts or compound which demonstrated strong radical scavenging activity were also found to demonstrate significant antisickling effects. Bioassay-guided fractionation of M. villosus resulted in the isolation of psychorubrin, quercetin and a mixture consisting of stigmasterol and an unidentified terpene. Quercetin was the most active antisickling and radical scavenging compound with percentage inhibition of 96.46±0.3 and 87.99±0.18 respectively.

Conclusion: Mitracarpus villosus ranked second best in activity among the tested plants. Antisickling activity of its isolated compounds was found to increase with increase in the antioxidant capability of the compounds. Quercetin was the most active compound while the non-antioxidant terpenoidal mixture had very weak polymerisation inhibitory effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Anti-plasmodial Activity of Crude Extracts of Three Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally for Malaria Treatment in Kenya

Ruth Anyango Omole, Hamisi Masanja Malebo, Ramadhani S. O. Nondo, Shaban Katani, Husna Mbugi, Jacob Midiwo, Mainen Julius Moshi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42874

The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of three plants Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii which are used for malaria treatment by indigenous communities in Kenya. This work was done at the Department of Biological and Preclinical studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health & Allied Sciences in October 2016 to August 2017. Male and female albino mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) in the Peter’s four day suppression test.  Five groups of mice; Group 1 (solvent: 5 mL/kg body weight of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose), Group 5 (10 mg/kg body weight chloroquine), Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts. The results showed that 5% aqueous methanol extracts of R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis exhibited higher anti-plasmodial activity than the 1:1 dichloromethane: methanol extracts in the preliminary testing. The doses showing 50% parasite suppression (EC50) were 139.2, 169.4 and 245.1 mg/kg body weight for R. prinoides, G. buchananii and R. keniensis, respectively. In vivo anti-plasmodial activity of the three plants has supported the traditional use of extracts of Rhamnus prinoides, Rubus keniensis and Garcinia buchananii for treatment of malaria. Isolation of compounds from these plants is in progress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Activity of Crude Extracts of Vernonia cinerea Less (Asteraceae) against the Larvae of Anopheles gambiae in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

Aboubakar Soma, François D. Hien, Seydou Sourabie, Serge R. Yerbanga, Léa N. Bonkian, Benjamin K. Koama, Noufou Ouedraogo, Moussa Ouedraogo, Gordon A. Awandare, Jean-Baptiste Nikiema

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/43030

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the larvicidal activity of lyophilized methanolic extracts, hydro-methanolic extracts and aqueous extracts of Vernonia cinerea Less against the 3rd and 4th instars larvae of Anopheles gambiae.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Centre MURAZ /Research Institute for Health; Ministry of Health, Bobo-Dioulasso, between February 2017 and January 2018. Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé/Direction Régionale de l’Ouest (IRSS) Bobo-Dioulasso, between March 2017 and January 2018.

Methodology: The whole plant material was collected in Banfora, located at West of Burkina Faso. The 80% methanolic, 50/50% hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained by using the classical natural product extraction method of the laboratory. Extracts were lyophilized and a series of concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.001 – 100 mg/L were prepared. The larvicidal activity of lyophilized extracts has been tested against the 3rd and 4th Anopheles gambiae larvae. The larval mortality was evaluated after 24 hours and 48 hours of exposure. The percent of means of mortality was calculated. Lethal Concentration LC50 and LC90 values were determined.

Results: In the laboratory, the results of methanolic extract at 100 mg/L achieved (100%) mortality against Anopheles gambiae after 24 hours of exposure.The same extract at 10 mg/L generated (95.85±1.26%) of mortality outside the laboratory. The 80% methanolic extract showed Lethal Concentration LC50 of 11.07 mg/L and Lethal Concentration LC90 of 81.38 mg/L (after 24 hours). The 50/50% hydro-methanolic extracts achieved Lethal Concentration LC50 of 22.27 mg/L against 3417.78 mg/L respectively inside and outside of the laboratory.

Conclusion: The methanolic extract is the most effective in killing on the larvae compared to the other extracts tested. Vernonia cinerea Less possesses larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae larvae. It may be a possible source of mosquito vector control. This study provided promising finding for using crude extracts of Vernonia cinerea Less in controlling larvae of malaria vectors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines for Oral Health Promotion: Analysis of Students and Professionals Knowledge

Eufrásia Maria Alves da Silva, Mariana Freire Silva, Gabriela Fracasso Moraes, Lígia Moura Burci

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42954

Aims: Verify the indications of medicinal plants and herbal medicines carried out by professors and academics of the dentistry course, and their knowledge about the interaction of medicinal plants and herbal medicines with medications of continuous use.

Materials and Methods: An evaluation instrument was applied to professors who practice the profession of dental surgeon and students of the dentistry course on the indication of herbal and phytotherapeutic products to their clients in the clinic and in the office.

Results: A total of 52 subjects participated in the research, providing a total of 5 different types of plants cited and 1 herbal medicine, highlighting Malva sylvestris, and not reporting the knowledge of the subjects on any type of drug interaction.

Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge among professional dental surgeons and students             about the use and benefit of natural resources such as medicinal plants and herbal                  medicines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Optimum Extraction Conditions for Galantamine from Galanthus woronowii L. Bulbs

I. Bulduk, S. Gokce, H. Enginar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42871

In the present study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed for the efficient extraction of Galantamine from the bulbs of Galanthus woronowii L. Five independent variables, including pH of the extraction solvent, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound time, ultrasound temperature and ultrasound power were studied by single factor experiments. The central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ultrasound time, ultrasound temperature and solvent/material ratio) on the extraction efficiency. The 3-level, 3-factorial Central-Composite Design was employed to study three main extraction conditions: extraction time (15-45 min), extraction temperature (30–70°C) and solvent/material ratio (30–50 mL/g sample). The present analysis revealed that a quadratic polynomial model can be used to express the response dependent variable yield of Galantamine. The optimal extraction conditions were found to be solvent/material ratio of 40.70 mL/g sample, with an extraction time of 32.89 min and a temperature of 51.04°C. Theoretical optimal yield was recorded 0.469% with a mentioned extraction conditions and the yield of Galantamine was found to be 0.470% which is in a very good agreement with the theoretically predicted one.