Open Access Short Research Article

Castanea sativa Mill. Extract Cytotoxicity

José Manuel Neves

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42780

Castanea sativa Mill. leaves infusion/decoction has been traditionally used in the northern region of Portugal to treat cough in children, diarrhoea, infertility and hypertension. However, no information exists about its possible toxic effects.

This study aims to investigate the toxicity of C. sativa Mill. extract by the determination of population growth impairment, generation time, LC50, morphometric changes in Tetrahymena pyriformis and MTT test.

Generation time, growth and MTT assay are affected by chestnut tree leaves extract and these effects are dosage dependent. The morphometry of the Tetrahymena pyriformis cells was also affected. According to the obtained LC50 value, the extract may be considered as mildly toxic.

The usage of C. sativa leaves extract must be exercised with caution especially when it comes to children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological and Toxicological Study of a Traditional Mayan Herbal Preparation Used as Antihypertensive Agent

Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Víctor Yáñez-Pérez, Maximiliano Ibarra-Barajas, Salvador Flores-Guido, Hector Armando Rubio-Zapata, Gabriela Ávila-Villarreal, Rolffy Ortiz-Andrade

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42504

Aims: To evaluate preparation herbal mixed of Pouteria campechiana, Chrysophyllum cainito, Citrus limonum and Annona muricata (PCCA) on vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect on rat model and toxicological data after acute oral administration to give scientific support to the use ethnomedical and to explore their potential damaging on oral intake.

Study Design:  Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample female and male Wistar rats.  Pharmacology laboratory of Chemistry School and Department of Clinical and Epidemiological Research of Medicine School, Autonomous University of Yucatán. Between October 2014 and July 2016.

Methodology: An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 of each plant plus individual extracts were prepared. Vasorelaxant effect was assessed (3.03 to 100 μg/mL), hypotensive effect ((100, 200, 300 mg/Kg) and median lethal dose (LD50) by oral acute toxicity method (OECD 423 guide).

Results: PCCA extract induced a significant vasorelaxation (medium effective concentration (EC50)=463.43 μg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner in aorta’s endothelium-intact rings and this effect was partially endothelium-dependent.  Acute oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of PCCA exhibited significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in normotensive rats. PCCA did not show clinical toxicity of acute oral administration. Only 2000 mg/kg show histopathological inflammatory responses on gut and liver.

Conclusion: PCCA induces a significant cardiovascular effect and was not toxic for rodents. The results support the popular use of some Mayan Medicinal plants as antihypertensive agents; however, clinical studies are necessary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants’ Productivity and Sustainability Monitoring Framework

Zacchaeus Oni Omogbadegun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/3156

Aims: To establish a programmatic framework facilitating all stakeholders harmonize their approaches and methodologies in ensuring sustainable management of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

Study Design: Combination of semi-structured interviews, questionnaire, and direct observation research methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Selected towns and villages in South Western States of Nigeria between January 2010 and June 2012.

Methodology: ‘Participatory approach’ adopted to explore individual perceptions, values and attitudes through in-depth interviewing and administration of semi-structured questionnaires with open-ended pertinent questions for all stakeholders’ joint inputs. 413 stakeholders (General Practitioners with Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) knowledge, CAM practitioners with biomedicine knowledge, pharmacists, MAPs consumers, and community members), 127 Parks and Gardens government officials, 58 conservation scholars/researchers, and 14 legal practitioners on MAPs conservation were interviewed to perform stakeholder analysis. Model-driven engineering tools were used to create the static behaviour aspects of MAPs management. A logistic productivity and sustainability potential of a village medicinal plants harvesting was simulated with a written software.

Results: CAM practitioners demanded appropriate information on the sustainable use of MAPs. Regulatory/government body ensured stakeholders’ compliance with the laws governing harvesting of MAPs, while reducing or avoiding policies/political changes that could result in MAPs’ loss. Doctors/nurses showed interest seeking integration of conventional medical practice with MAPs-based therapies. Pharmacists expressed interest exploring MAPs for new therapeutics. Scholars/researchers demanded research grants/funding from governments and their research findings’ implementation.

Conclusion: Coordination among different stakeholders, significant involvement of the parks management, improvement in national education standards, and a legal framework that provides a basis for co-management agreements that constitute critical success factors needed to implement viable and sustainable conservation agreements within the program. MAPs’ productivity and sustainability demand individual and collective responsibilities from all stakeholders for better management of ecosystem and public health in a viable option using a ‘participation model’. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimalarial Activity of Crude Extract and Fractions of Phyllanthus amarus in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice

Alozieuwa Uchenna Blessing, Mann Abdulahi, Kabiru Adamu Yusuf, Ogbadoyi Emmannuel Olofu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/38578

Aim: This study evaluated the antimalarial activity of the crude extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria, between February  2016 and August  2016.

Methodology: Mice infected with Plasmodium berghei were administered orally with the crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus whole plant 72 hours post infection at doses ranging from 100-500 mg/kg/day, for five consecutive days. Chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day).and artesunate (50 mg/kg/day) were used as controls, while distilled water was administered to the negative control groups.  N-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, obtained from crude aqueous methanolic extract, were also evaluated for their inhibitory effect against P. berghei at doses ranging from 50-200 mg/kg/day. Level of parasitaemia, survival time, variations in the values of body weight and % PCV were monitored throughout the study period.

Results: Crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus whole plant showed significant (P < 0.05) antiplasmodial activity in dose dependent pattern with 76.74% inhibition of parasite growth. Aqueous fraction at a dose of 200 mg/kg demonstrated significant antiplasmodial activity with %inhibition of parasite growth of 56.40. The variations in the values of weight and %PCV before and after treatment were not significant in both the crude and aqueous fraction. Significant inhibition of parasite growth by the crude extract and aqueous fraction resulted in longer mouse survival relative to the control, as confirmed in the mean survival time of the mice (27.67±1.45, 22.67±0.67, 29.33±0.67 and 6.67±0.88 days) for the crude extract (500mg/kg), aqueous fraction (200 mg/kg), chloroquine and negative control groups respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenol, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the whole plant extract and fractions of Phyllanthus amarus have antimalarial property which can serve as a novel source for the development of new and affordable antimalarial agent. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Diabetic Properties of the Root Extracts of Salacia nitida Benth on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

C. I. Zawua, H. D. Kagbo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41430

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic properties of root extracts of               Salacia nitida in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Experimental Animal Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, University of Port Harcourt,Rivers State from July 2016 to February 2017.

Methodology: The study investigated the dose-dependent changes in the blood glucose levels, body weight, serum lipid profile (Total Cholesterol (TC), Total glycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), liver function (serum; Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total Bilirubin, Conjugated Bilirubin, Total Proteins and Albumin) and renal function (serum; creatinine and urea). The method of successive extraction was used, making use of the solvents n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water in order of polarity to extract the root fractions to be utilised for the research. A qualitative phytochemical analysis making use of standardized methods was performed. Acute toxicity was evaluated using the Lorke's method. The anti-diabetic study was evaluated in twenty-one days, comprising two phases: induction phase and treatment phase. Fifty- five rats for the experiment were divided into eleven sets of five rats each.

Results: These results indicate the presence of chemical constituents; alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrates in the extracts. LD50 value was determined to be more than 5000 mg/kg, which indicates that it is safe. The extracts showed hypoglycemic activity which was evidenced by improving the body imbalance in lipid metabolism experienced during diabetes, restoring body weight to near normal, lowering blood glucose levels, restoring protein levels to near normal, decreased liver glycogen levels, and decreasing albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine levels.

Conclusion: This study indicated that the root extracts of Salacia nitida showed anti-diabetic properties in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thus, the extracts of S. nitida will be an inordinate addition to ethnomedicine in the management of diabetes and its complications.