Open Access Original Research Article

Uterotonic Potential of Selected Plants Used by Ugandan Local Communities in the Treatment of Malaria

Esther Katuura, Enock Kalabika, Aloysius Lubega

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40934

Malaria is a major cause of death among pregnant women and children under the age of five in Uganda. It is the leading cause of anemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants [1]. Majority of the rural population rely on herbs for treatment of various diseases. The leaf extracts of various plants including Bothlioclines longipes, Vernonia amygdalina, Rhus natalensis and Maesa lanceolata are used to treat various diseases including malaria in Uganda. The local communities prefer herbal preparations from the leaves of the plants. Extracts from the leaves of the plants were proven efficacious against P. falciparum in earlier studies in vitro. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Diethyl ether and methanol extracts on the contractility of an isolated rabbit uterus and also to quantitatively analyze for iron and zinc in the leaves of these plants. The diethyl ether extracts of V. amygdalina, M. lanceolata and R. natalensis at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml and 0.8 mg/ml exhibited contractility amplitudes of 26.0 mm, 21.5 mm and 27.5 mm and 22.5±1.10 mm, 15.0±1.78 mm and 24.5 ±0.99 mm respectively. The methanol extracts were 25.5±0.70 mm, 23±1.34 mm, 22±1.01 mm and 37.8±1.26 mm, 16.7±2.01 mm, 24.3±0.06 mm respectively, while oxytocin showed 22.8±0.57 mm and 31.0±0.36 mm respectively.  The plant leaves were found to have high levels of iron ranging from 2516.587±17.983 (mg/100 g) in B. longipes to 583.317±9.505 (mg/100 g) in V. amygdalina. Rhus natalensis and V. amygdalina had low levels of Zinc. Anti-nutritive phytocompounds such as saponins and Tannins were also detected in some of the test extracts. The study concludes that plants used by pregnant women may have either a positive or negative effect on expectant mothers. There is need to formulate evidence based effective medicines for their safe use in the management of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Medicinal Plants as Alternatives for Typhoid Fever and Bacterial Gastroenteritis Therapy in Abwa-Mbagen, Nigeria

I. W. Nyinoh, B. O. Atu, H. O. A. Oluma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42248

Aim: To assess the antibacterial activities and phytochemical potential of Cochlospermum planchonii (Apocynaceae), Terminalia avicennoides (Papilionaceae) and Pericopsis laxiflora (Papilionaceae) used traditionally against typhoid fever and bacterial gastroenteritis.

Study Design: In this study, hot water, hexane and methanol extracts obtained from the test plants were screened for phytochemicals according to standard procedures. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays were employed to determine the plant extracts susceptibilities to the test bacteria.

Place and Duration of the Study: Extraction was performed at the Chemistry laboratory, Benue State University while phytochemical screening and in vitro analyses were carried out at the Bacterial Research Division, National Veterinary and Research Institute Vom, Nigeria. All studies lasted for 12 months.

Methodology: Preparation of plant extracts, phytochemical analyses of the plant parts, agar well diffusion assay, determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was used to evaluate antibacterial activities. The Zones of Inhibition of various concentrations of extracts against test bacteria were also measured. Results were compared with standard antibiotic discs.

Results: Phytochemical studies reveal that while saponins were present in all the test plants anthraquinone was absent. Also, tannins, alkaloids, essential and volatile oils, flavonoids, phlobatannins, and steroids were identified in one or more of the plants. Findings from antibacterial activity reveal that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the extracts, by comparison to the Gram-negative bacteria.

The hexane extracts of both C. planchonii and P. laxiflora extracts inhibited Bacillus cereus at 0.165 μg ml-1, while T. avicennoides hexane extract and decoction showed the least MIC of 0.33 μg ml-1 against Stahylococcus aureus.

Conclusion: The positive correlations of the results obtained here confirm the acclaimed ethnomedical uses, while also providing a potential source for discovering new pharmaceutical compounds with antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Components in the Dihydroquercetin-Rich Extract from Larch Wood (Larix olgensis Henry)

Shui-Yao Hu, Yi-Nan Zheng, Chuan-Bo Ding, Yue-Wen Hao, Bin Cui, Lan Xiang

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42458

Background: The finding that antioxidant dihydroquercetin (DHQ) present in high content in the wood of Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) which distributes mainly in Khingan Mountains led to the development and manufacture of a DHQ-rich extract, Lavitol (a trade name). Whether the composition of DHQ-rich extract from L. olgensis Henry, a great resource of Larch species distributed in Changbai Mountain in China, is same or similar with trade DHQ product becomes an interesting question.

Aims: To isolate and identify the components in the DHQ-rich extract from larch wood (L. olgensis).

Methodology: Compounds were isolated from a DHQ-rich extract (91% purity) of L. olgensis through polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated based on 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and CD data analysis. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was applied to quickly identify the components in the extract.

Results: Five compounds were isolated from the extract, the main one was (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin (1), four minor components were identified as (2R,3R)-aromadendrin (2), quercetin (3), 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone (4) and (2R,3R)-3'-O-methyl-taxifolin (5). Polyamide and silica gel TLC were developed to identify these components in the extract, and the results indicated that three batches of DHQ-rich extracts contained the same components.

Conclusion: Except for the presence of trace impurities 4 and 5, DHQ-rich extracts from L. olgensis contained (2R,3R)-DHQ (1) and two minor impurities 2 and 3, which were similar with the composition of trade DHQ-rich extract from Dahurian larch (L. gmelinii). Further quantification of these impurities in DHQ-rich extract from L. olgensis by HPLC analysis need to be done in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticonceptive and Pharmacognostic Studies on the Seed and Diethyl Ether Extract of RICOM-1013-J

A. O. Olayinka, O. Onorovwe, C. Isichei, I. J. Usar, O. E. Ekwere, A. Sanni, G. G. Jurbe, K. F. Okwuasaba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/42249

Aims: The anticonceptive effect of the diethyl ether extract of Ricinus communis Linn (RICOM 1013-1) was studied in rats alongside pharmacognostic properties, amino acids content and elemental analysis. 

Study Design and Methodology: 20 adult female albino Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of five rats each. The first, second and third groups received 3, 10 and 20 mg/kg of diethyl ether extract administered subcutaneously (SC) in divided doses over two days, respectively. The fourth group received 0.1 ml of corn oil for two days and served as control. They were then mated with proven fertile males in a ratio of 3:1 and followed for three gestation periods. The first day of mating was termed day 0 of pregnancy. In addition, amino acid and elemental analyses were undertaken as well as a phytochemical screening of the seed of RICOM-1013-J.

Results: At doses of 3, 10 and 20 mg/kg, RICOM-1013-J produced dose-dependent inhibition of pregnancy in female albino Wistar rats over three gestation periods. The total ash value obtained was 3.13 ± 0.26%, while the acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were 0.30 ± 0.003% and 0.20±0.003%, respectively. The yield to ethanol was much higher than the water-soluble extract.  Essential and non-essential amino acids were not detected. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were present in high concentrations in the following order: defatted undecorticated>undecorticated>decorticated samples. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of steroids and alkaloids whereas, triterpenes, tannins and flavonoids were absent.

Conclusion: The pharmacognostic parameters, including elemental values, provide some preliminary data for identification of this species among many varieties reported in the literature.    

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Flavonoid from Sudanese Bauhinia rufescens (kulkul) (Caesalpiniaceae) Roots

Nosaiba K. Hamed, Suad A. Gadir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41375

A 7-, 4׳ dihydroxyl-5-methoxyl -5׳ acetyl flavonoid was isolated from the roots of  Sudanese Bauhinia rufescens (family, Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae). The isolate was purified by different Chromatographic techniques and identified via a combination of spectral tools (IR, UV, 1HNMR and Mass spectroscopy).                                                               

The isolated compound was screened for its antimicrobial activity against six standard human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) and promising results were obtained. About 600 species of Bauhinia grow in the tropical regions of the word. It is found in the Sahel and adjacent Sudan zone, from Senegal and Mauritania across North Ghana and Niger to central Sudan and Ethiopia. Bauhinia rufescens is a  little tree shrub. green all year with small leaves and  white flowers. The macerate of Bauhinia rufescens roots used externally to treat ulcers and rheumatism. The isolated flavanone can play role in development of new tool as antimicrobial agent.