Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant Activity and Hypoglycemic Potential of Kenyan Aloe lateritia and Aloe secundiflora Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

Charles M. Mbithi, Esther N. Matu, Naomi W. N. Maina

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40799

The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical constitution, antioxidant activity, hypoglycemic potential and safety of Aloe lateritia and Aloe secundiflora. Phytochemical screening was determined using standard procedures and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined spectro-photometrically. Hypoglycemic studies involved daily administration of 200 mg/kg of metformin and 300 mg/kg of methanol and aqueous leaves extracts of A. lateritia and A. secundiflora to alloxan-induced diabetic mice for 21 days. The safety of the extracts was experimented using OECD protocol on Acute Oral Toxicity-Acute Toxic Class Method Test no. 423. The results showed the presence of hypoglycemic phytochemicals: - phenols, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, steroids and carbohydrates in both plants. Analysis by GC-MS determined the presence of phytochemicals in A. lateritia and A. secundiflora already established in other Aloe species. Aloe secundiflora extracts were decided to have higher free radical scavenging activity than A. lateritia extracts. Both A. lateritia and A. secundiflora aqueous and methanol extracts showed significant decreases in FBG levels when compared to the diabetic control group while there was no significant difference between A. secundiflora extracts and metformin-treated group at the end of the experiment (P<0.05). Aloe secundiflora methanol extracts achieved the highest percentage glycemic change among the extracts. All the extracts were not toxic at the tested levels. The hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities established in A. lateritia and A. secundiflora can be linked to the phytochemicals present.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effects of Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker Leaf Extracts on Sickle Red Blood Cells

Mojisola C. Cyril-Olutayo, Francis A. Adewoyin, Ayodele O. Ogunyemi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41202

The mortality rate for people living with sickle cell disease is high and relatively a few patients among them reach adult life, even with a high standard of medical care. Clinical manifestations of the sickle cell disease are diverse and vary, falling into three major categories: anaemia, pain related issues and organ failure. Sickle cell crises or painful episodes may be caused by blood vessel occlusion, damaged organ, triggered by membrane deformation. Patients in West Africa, where sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is prevalent, have for ages been treated with natural products especially herbs as it is still the case in rural communities. The medicinal plant Clerodendrum polycephalum used for this study is used ethno medically in treating malaria and pains associated with sickle cell disease. The leaves were collected, oven dried and macerated in methanol for 72 h. The extract was dried and reconstituted in distilled water to give concentrations 0.25 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL. The methanol extract was further fractionated into solvents of varying polarity viz: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water. All extracts and fractions were tested for their antisickling properties using the inhibitory and reversal models. Vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used as the positive controls for the inhibitory and reversal assays respectively. An attempt was made to identify the different classes of compounds present in the extract by using thin layer chromatography technique.

The methanol extract of C. polycephalum gave 55.9% inhibitory and 65.63% reversal activities at 4 mg/mL. The antisickling activities were dose-dependent and purification significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the reversal activity which was indicated in the polar fractions. This study authenticated the use of C. polycephalum in the management of pains associated with sickle cell disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Hura crepitans L.

Opeyemi N. Avoseh, Latifat O. Ogunbajo, Isiaka A. Ogunwande, Akintayo L. Ogundajo, Oladipupo A. Lawal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41439

Aims: The present research aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Hura crepitans L. (Euphorbiaceae) grown in Nigeria

Study Design:  The study involves the extraction of crude extracts from the leaf of H. crepitans and the evaluation of their anti-inflammatory potential.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh leaves of H. crepitans were collected from Festac Town, Amuwo-Odofin in Lagos, Nigeria (6.4664oN, 3.2835oE). The sheets were air-dried in the laboratory of Lagos State University where the extraction of crude and anti-inflammatory studies took place. The study lasted between March and November 2017.

Methodology: The dried and pulverised leaves (0.5 kg) of H. crepitans were separately macerated in hexane and ethyl acetate for five (5) days in an airtight bottle and shook periodically (agitation) to maximise full extraction of the phyto-constituents. The extracts were decanted, filtered and concentrated on a rotary evaporator to obtained dried samples.

The anti-inflammatory activity was determined on fresh egg albumins over 4 h by measurement of rat paw edema according to established procedure.

Results: The result of the extraction shows that more phytochemicals are present in the ethyl acetate extract (15.0%) as compared to the hexane extract (7.2%). The anti-inflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of H. crepitans on Wistar rats using egg-albumin as phlogistic agents shows a moderate inhibition with a significant value of  P< 0.05 at a dose of 200 mg/kg orally. Percentage inhibition of the anti-inflammation decreases steadily from the 1st hr to the 4th hr for the hexane extract (11.7 to 1.5% ) while there was an increment in the ethyl acetate extract from 12% to 32.5% for the 1st and the 4th hr respectively when compared with the control.

Conclusion: This study has shown that the extracts of H. crepitans leaves possessed a significant anti-oedematogenic effect on paw oedema induced by egg-albumin by inhibiting the release of mediators for the entire 4 h experimental period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxic Effect of Gardenia ternifolia Fruit on Rats

Hayat M. Farah, Hassan E. Khalid, Abdelrahim M. El Hussein, Halima Mohamed Osman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41458

Aim: This study aims to screen the aqueous extract of Gardenia ternifolia fruit for toxicity in Wistar albino rats by determination of morality, Percentage of weight change, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology.

Methodology: Twenty four male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, each of 6. Group 1 (control), group 2 and 3 (sub-chronic toxicity) and group 4 (acute toxicity). The aqueous extract was administered orally at a dose of 50 and 500 mg/ kg/ day -for four weeks- to group 2 and 3, respectively. Group 4 received 2000 mg/kg once, and group 1 was kept as a control. Clinical signs and mortality were observed daily. The weights of the animals were recorded weekly at week intervals till the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected for hematology and biochemistry. Specimens of Liver and kidney were kept in 10% formalin for histopathology.

Results: The results revealed that no clinical signs of toxicity or mortality were recorded during the experiment in all groups. The percentage of weight gain was lowest in group 4 compared with group 1 (control). The hematology and biochemistry of group 1 and 2 were not affected. However, both were altered in group 4. White Blood Cells (WBC) were significantly (P<0.05) increased; Red Blood Cells (RBC), Hemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Total protein and albumin were significantly (P<0.05) decreased. Cholesterol, urea, creatinine, Alanin Transaminase (ALT), Asparate Transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly (P<0.05) increased. But, bilirubin was not affected in all groups. Histopathological changes on liver and kidney correlated with the hematological and biochemical alterations.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. ternifolia fruit was safe and not lethal to rats at low doses; the highest dose altered the haematology, biochemistry and histology of the tested animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Some Medicinal Plants on Obesity

Majid Ramezani, Saeed Changizi-Ashtiyani, Firoozeh Sadeghzadeh, Seyed-Sirvan Hosseini, Ali Zarei, Naser Hosseini

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41111

Aims: Obesity is a significant cause of disability and death. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of some medicinal plants in the treatment of obesity and its complications.

Study Design: Male Wistar rats were treated in different groups.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences (Iran), December 2015 to July 2017.

Methodology: The groups were defined as the control, the high-fat diet and the high-fat diet with hydroalcoholic extracts of Camellia sinensis, Rosa canina, Althaea officinalis, Plantago major and Orlistat in their food, for 48 days. In the serum, the profiles of the liver enzymes and the thyroid hormones were measured as parameters of their appetite.

Results: The lowest increase in appetite happened in the Camellia sinensis group and the lowest levels of blood glucose and creatinine were in the Plantago primary group. The lowest cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were seen in the Camellia sinensis group (P<0.05). The amount of alanine aminotransferase (ALP) and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the Plantago major group were significantly lower than the positive control group (P<0.05). In Althaea officinalis group were higher Orlistat and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) than the control group (P<0.05). The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in control group was significantly lower than the positive control, Camellia sinensis and Rosa canina groups (P<0.05). The level of thyroxin in Althaea officinalis, Rosa canina and Camellia sinensis groups were significantly lower than the positive control group, respectively (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extracts of Camellia sinensis, Rosa canina, Althaea officinalis, and Plantago major are effective in reducing the damages caused by high-fat diet through decreasing lipid profiles, liver enzymes, without causing side effects on thyroid and renal functions.