Open Access Original Research Article

The Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Phytochemical Composition of Combretum tanaense (J. Clark) Root Extracts

M. Onyancha Jared, A. Waiganjo Bibiane, A. Moriasi Gervason, N. Arara Lameck, K. Ng’etich Japhet

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40956

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial, antioxidant and phytochemical composition of Combretum tanaense extracts.

Study Design:  Laboratory-experimental design was used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh roots of Combretum tanaense were obtained from Mount Kenya University botanical garden in Thika (Kiambu County-Kenya). The study was carried out between November 2017 and February 2018 at Mount Kenya University Biochemistry and Pharmacognosy laboratories.

Methodology: Duplicate voucher specimens were prepared and deposited at the East Africa herbarium housed at the National Museums of Kenya and Mount Kenya University herbarium. Extraction of total extracts of C. tanaense roots was conducted according to standard procedures. Agar well diffusion and 2-2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assay methods were used to evaluate antibacterial and free radical scavenging activities of the extracts. All assays were performed in triplicate. Antibacterial data was presented as a mean zone of inhibition ± SEM while free radical scavenging activities were expressed regarding IC50. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures to ascertain the presence or absence of various phytochemical groups in the test plant.

Results: The current study indicated that Combretum tanaense root extracts had antibacterial activities against the selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. The highest activity was recorded against gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus influenza) by exhibiting inhibition zones of 13.32±0.15 mm and 12.82±0.36 mm for methanol and water extracts respectively. Antioxidant activities for both methanol and water extracts were ten times higher compared to that of standard (L-ascorbic acid). The extracts were found to have saponins, phenols including tannins and glycosides.

Conclusion:  Extracts of Combretum tanaense have compounds that exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities. From the results obtained, the ability of the extracts to inhibit bacterial growth and scavenge for free radicals was due to the presence of phenolic compounds and will be attributed to the healing properties of this plant. This study recommends further studies including toxicity and isolation of active compounds for the development of products with pharmaceutical value.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile of Experimental Rats Ingested Thermally Oxidized Oil

S. Halmi, A. Madi, N. Zeghad, K. Berouel, Y. Hamdi Pacha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40946

Opuntia ficus indica largely presents in Algerian rural environment, is frequently used by the local population for its therapeutic virtues.This particular study was carried out on Wistar albino rats, which were divided into four individual groups namely I, II, III and IV.  The rats in Group I served as the control, received a distilled water, Group II was received thermoxidized vegetable oil, while Group III  and IV  were received thermoxidized oil with 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight of Opuntia ficus indica aqueous extract added in each respectively. At the end of 22 days administration, blood samples were collected for the analysis of lipid profile. The result showed that TG was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all the test groups when compared with the control, The HDL was significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the test samples except GroupII, while LDL followed a reverse trend. The phytochemical studies showed the presence of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidepressant Effect of Methanol Fruit Extract of Capsicum annuum in Mice

Esther Badugu Patrick, Danjuma Mallam, Seth Hassan Albarka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41087

Aims: To determine the antidepressant potential of methanol fruit extract of Capsicum annuum in Mice.

Methodology: Force Swim Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Open Field Test (OFT) were used. Immobility time in both FST and TST was determined by randomly dividing 30 mice into five (5) groups of six (6) mice each. Group 1 received saline, Group 2, Imipramine (15 mg/kg), Group 3, 4, and five were treated with 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg of methanol extract of fruits of Capsicum annuum respectively. In the OFT,  25 mice were divided into five(5) groups of five (5) mice each; Group 1 received normal saline, group 2, Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg), group 3,4 and 5 were treated with 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg of methanol fruit extract of C. annuum respectively.

Results: Imipramine, and the doses of the methanol fruit extract significantly reduced the immobility time when compared with a normal saline group (p≤ 0.05) in the mice FST and TST. The effect of the extract was dose-dependent; 2000 mg/kg produced the highest reduction. In the Open field test (OFT), the number of square crossing showed no significant difference between Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) and all the doses of the extract administered. This implied that the extract did not act as a stimulant.

Conclusion: The decrease behavioural despair in this study suggests that Capsicum annuum may be a promising candidate for the management of depression. The antidepressant like activity may be attributed to the presence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant flavonoids and triterpene in the plants given the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in depression. Further work will be carried out to validate this result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotoxic Assessment of Phyllanthus amarus leaf Extract in Wistar Rats

Taofeeq Oduola, Abubakar Amali Muhammad, Fatimah Aiyelabegan, Mardhiyyah Tajudeen, Shehu Olayinka Okalawon

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41238

Background and Aim: Different parts of Phyllanthus amarus are being used in the treatment of different diseases in several parts of Nigeria without considering its safety. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ingestion of methanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus on the liver of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: The acute oral toxicity of the leaf extract (LD50) was determined in 9 Wistar rats divided into 3 groups of 3 rats per group. Group 1 was the control and received distilled water. Different doses of 2000 mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg were administered orally once to the study groups 2 and 3 respectively. A sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out in 25 Wistar rats, divided into five groups of 5 rats per group. Group 1 served as control and received distilled water. The remaining 4 groups (2, 3, 4 and 5) served as the study groups and were administered different doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of methanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus respectively on a daily basis for 28 days. Total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total and conjugated bilirubin (TB and CB), aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were assayed using standard techniques.

Results: In the acute oral toxicity study, no death or any sign of toxicities were recorded in the rats after 24 hours and up to 14 days post oral administration and there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in all the parameters analysed between the control and the study groups. In sub-chronic toxicity study, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in all parameters analysed between the control and study groups. Histology of the liver of the rats in both the acute and sub-chronic study showed normocytic and normochromic cells.

Conclusion: Methanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus is relatively non-toxic and is not likely to induce liver damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Biochemical Changes Observed Following Sub-chronic Administration of Crude Methanol Extracts of Stellaria media and Cajanus cajan to Wistar Rats

Bukola Olanike Oyebanji, Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa, Grace Onyeche Ochigbo, Adebowale Bernard Saba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/24817

Aims: Stellaria media and Cajanus cajan are nutritive plants used as food and as components of several herbal remedies either singly or in combination with other medicinal plants in Southwestern Nigeria. This study aimed to evaluate its effect on haematology and serum biochemistry after a sub-chronic administration to Wistar rats.

Study Design: Wistar rats were randomly grouped into four groups and administered methanol extracts of S. media at doses of 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively per os. Same grouping and treatment was carried out for methanol extract of Cajanus cajan.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between June and October, 2010.

Methodology: The study evaluated the effect of the extract on haematology and serum biochemistry of rats administered with the extract by assessing changes in PCV, MCV, WBC and differential counts while ALT, AST, total protein, albumin, serum bilirubin and creatinine levels were used to assess effects on the liver and kidneys.

Results: The study shows no toxic effect in the haematology rather an immunostimulatory effect is seen with both plants. Lymphocyte counts were between 4.6–8.6 X103/mm3 for S. media and 8.3-11.0 X103/mm3 for C. cajan compared to the control rats (4.3 X103/mm3). A possible hepatotoxicity was observed for C. cajan after sub-chronic usage. A non-significant (P>0.05) increase in AST levels were observed with significantly (P<0.05) decreased protein levels of 3.3-3.8 g/dl compared to control rats (5.9 g/dl).

Conclusion: Lower doses of ≤100 mg/kg are recommended and caution should be taken when using Stellaria media or Cajanus cajan at high doses and or for prolonged administration.