Open Access Original Research Article

Compositional, Elemental, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Characterization of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Pulps and Seeds from Selected Regions in Kenya and Uganda

Redemtor Awuor Ojwang, Edward K. Muge, Betty. N. Mbatia, Benson. K. Mwanza, Dorington. O. Ogoyi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40967

The number of people affected by nutrition insecurity worldwide in 2016 was 815 million, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. This has been attributed to starvation and overdependence on a few crops for nutritional needs. There is therefore need to find alternative nutrition sources. This study sought to determine the nutritional profile, mineral composition, phytochemical and antioxidant properties of Jackfruit seeds and pulps, collected from selected regions in Kenya and Uganda. The moisture contents were found to be higher in the edible pulp region (62.67-70.42%), compared to the seeds (44.76-50.54%). The ash, lipid, carbohydrate and protein contents of fresh weight, on the other hand, were found to be higher in the seeds than in the edible pulp region. The ash contents were (1.12 -1.64%) and (0.34 -0.48%), the lipid contents were (0.41-0.50%) and (0.09-0.12%), the protein contents were (14.11 to 16.26%) and (10.56 to 13.67%) and the carbohydrate contents were (31.41%-34.95%) and (21.65 to 24.91%) for the seeds and pulps respectively.  The mineral analysis showed that Jackfruit seeds and pulps were rich in essential minerals. The seeds and pulps, were found to both rich in potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron minerals. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities, were also found to be higher in the seeds than in the pulps. The phenolic contents were (17.37 to 18.69 mg/g) and (12.10 to 14.55 mg/g), while flavonoids contents were (0.5 - 0.89 mg/g) and (0.18 -0.29 mg/g) for the seeds and pulps respectively. The DPPH scavenging activities were (21.70 - 24.44%) and (15.49 - 17.47%), while the reducing powers were (51.05 -58.00 µg/ml) and (43.54-45.38 µg/ml) for the seeds and pulp respectively. Jackfruit seeds and pulps are therefore highly nutritious, rich in minerals and can be used as natural antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties of Carica papaya on Cadmium Toxicity on Prefrontal-Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats

H. B. Akpan, O. D. Omotoso, A. R. Olapade, E. Ogbonna, M. N. Negedu, A. A. Akande, A. O. Adedeji, F. E. Oladipupo, P. K. Orisadiran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/22753

Background: Cadmium is a carcinogenic agent in humans, and therefore, a cancer causing substance. In the body it is extensively circulated, but it is bound mainly to erythrocytes. Though cadmium binds to various macromolecules and proteins in the body, it is not well metabolized. Cadmium intensifies oxidative damage in the nervous system (and various other organ systems) thereby causing harm. The damage results from an increase in production of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes as shown by previous researches. This study investigated possible effects of Carica papaya as an antioxidant in the damage of the brain caused by cadmium.

Methods: Thirty Wistar rats weighing between 120 g-180 g of both sexes were divided into six groups of five animals each and used in this study. Six groups were induced intraperitoneally with a single dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate. Two out of these six groups were treated with high and low doses of Carica papaya, 250 mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight respectively for the period of four weeks. After sacrifice, enzyme assays were carried out on the tissue supernatant homogenates.

Results: The investigation showed that MDA level of activities decreased in the prefrontal cortex supernatant of groups 1, 2 and 6 animals and an increase in the MDA level of activities were observed in groups 4 and 5 rats which was significant at p<0.05. There was a decrease in catalase activities in groups 2 and 3 rats, also, an increase in CAT activities in groups 4 and 5 rats, the decrease was significant in groups 2 and 3 animals as compared with the control group 1 rats. GST activities decreased in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 rats and the decreased activities were significant at p<0.05 when compared with control group 1 animals. Progressive increase in the superoxide dismutase was observed in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 rats and this increase in activities was found significant at p<0.05 in groups 4, 5 and 6 rats when compared with the control group 1 rats.

Conclusion: The present study has justified the ameliorative properties of Carica papaya in scavenging the free oxygen radicals and supplement the cellular antioxidant systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histo-morphological Effects of Carica papaya on Cadmium Induced Prefrontal-Cortex Damage in Adult Wistar Rats

H. B. Akpan, O. D. Omotoso, E. Ogbonna, M. N. Negedu, S. A. Adelakun, F. E. Oladipupo, A. O. Adedeji, A. A. Akande, A. R. Olapade, P. K. Orisadiran

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/16429

Background: This research investigated the recuperative (restorative) effect of aqueous extract of Carica papaya fruit on cadmium induced prefrontal-cortex damaged in adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). Previous research reports have confirmed that cadmium toxicity results in cellular damage which is due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species and prevention of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Various parts of the brain (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and so on) are majorly affected by cadmium as its induced damage.

Methods: 30 Wistar rats (70 g-190 g) were used for this research. The rats were randomly selected into six groups of five animals each. A single dose of 3CdSO4.8H2O (Cadmium sulphate octahydrous) 3.5 mg/kg body weights was administered intraperitoneally to three of these groups against control a group that was not exposed to Cadmium. Two groups were treated with different doses of Carica papaya fruit extract for the period of four weeks. After four weeks, the rats were sacrificed and organs excised, weigh and fixed in fixative for histological processing. The photomicrographs of the normal control, induced control and treated groups were observed and compared for histomorphological similarities and differences.

Results: Cadmium was observed to have caused a distortion, disruption and calcification in the cells and tissue of the prefrontal cortex. There was shrinkage of nuclei of the neurons in cadmium induced rats. It was also observed that cadmium caused a loss in function of cell in the process of protein biosynthesis. The morphology of the neuronal cells of rats treated with high and low doses of Carica papaya extract was found to be slightly normal with increased viable neuronal cells as compared with the neurons of the normal control group 1 animals, though the restorative effects of the high dose treated rats were more pronounced. Also, it was observed that the damage to the brain section neurons treated with vitamins C and E before induction was not pronounced. Moreso, loss in body weight were observed in cadmium induced group animals and over treatment with Carica papaya, gain in the rats body weight was observed in the treatment animal groups as compared with the body weight of rats in normal control. Animal body weight before cadmium inoculation, after inoculation and before animal sacrifice were compared across all the groups and it was found that, there was a progressive increase in rats body weight (99±2,35≤ 150 ±3.21), (120±2.32≤189±3.21) and (135±1.35≤175±2.15) respectively which was significant at P ≤ 0.05.

Conclusion: It can be ascertained from this present study that Carica papaya has ameliorative properties against deleterious effects of cadmium on the neurons and neuroglia of the prefrontal-cortex in Wistar rats which is dose dependent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional Usage of Ethnomedicinal Plants in Treating Liver Disorders at Manipur, North East India

Anita Devi Thokchom, Anupam Das Talukdar, Brajakishore Singh Chingakham, Sanjoy Singh Ningthoujam, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/41479

History ensures that, plants with its medicinal usage are always being the topic of attraction                         for the researchers. Medicinal plants can be used for the various purposes, for example                                       healing pain, treating ailments or any other health issues. Gastrointestinal diseases more specifically liver disorders are treated with the help of these medicinal plants. Manipur is considered to be the place where liver disorders are primarily treated with the help of these medicinal plants by local health care providers, which emphasize the attributes of these plants in health care system. Following this aspect the study was carried out at three different districts namely Bishnupur, Kakching and Thoubal, that includes Ethnobotanical field surveys conducted from 2012-14, by covering traditional healers of Meitei community. Collected information from the surveys was analyzed and the target plants were identified. Disease Consensus Index was calculated on the basis of collected information to determine most significant plants. A total of 52 plant species of 34 distinct families are used as hepatoprotective medicinal plants amongst which the highest Disease Consensus Index (DCI) value was found in the species named Engelhardtia spicata Lechen; ex Blume. From these ethno pharmacological data plants with highest hepatoprotective values are identified.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on In vitro Regeneration of Ginger: Tips and Highlights

Tulasi Kasilingam, Givitha Raman, Nishalini D. Sundramoorthy, Geetha Supramaniam, Siti Hasmah Mohtar, Farhat A. Avin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40181

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the oriental spices, widely used worldwide for multiple purposes. It is applied as an important ingredient in Ayurvedic preparations from time immemorial.  Tissue culture is a practice that is utilized to propagate plants from cells or tissue under sterile conditions. This study is directed to create a review of the successful and reproducible convention for in vitro recovery of ginger with emphasis on effective initial culture establishment. Furthermore, it has dealt with the appropriate explant size and effectiveness of media quality on micropropagation of ginger. The current study recommends that the medium containing Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) can be used for inducing shoot development of ginger. Among the diverse explants, shoot tips give the quickest response for starting development and the highest number of multiple shoots are produced. As well, it is demonstrated that a survival rate and proper shoot/root expansion can be obtained through the tissue culture methods. Emphasizing the tips and recommendations, this study would be a route-map towards time and cost saving for producing a better quality of ginger.