Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Plant Extracts for Substrate Sterilization and Its Effect on Competitor Moulds and Biological Efficiency of Oyster Mushroom

M. K. Biswas, Sanjib Kuiry, Tanmay Ghosh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40411

Mushrooms are recognized as nutritionally functional food and a source of physiologically beneficial and nontoxic medicines. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is an efficient lignin degrading mushroom and can grow well on different types of lignocellulosic materials including agricultural and forest waste. Cultivation technique for oyster mushroom is very simple and the production cost is low, which gives consistent growth with high biological efficiency. Plant derivatives have shown considerable promise as an effective alternative of chemicals used in surface sterilization. To develop a suitable method for substrates treatment, six different plants extract were evaluated along with most popular chemical treatment (bavistin 75 ppm + formalin 500 ppm) for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Chemical treatment (bavistin 75 ppm + formalin 500 ppm) was found to be most effective among all the treatments and exhibited 120.50% Biological Efficiency (B.E.). Among the phyto-extracts, Zingiber officinale was found to be excellent in controlling the growth of competitor mould fungi (114% B.E.) followed by Azadirachta indica (109.25%) and Allium cepa (98.75%). Chemically treated substrate was taken minimum (20 days) for spawn run and gave 7.10 gm average weight of sporophore followed by Zingiber officinale (22 days and 6.740 gm). In vitro study revealed the superiority of chemicals and reduced 61.80 to 70.67% mycelium growth of four contaminants. Extract of Zingiber officinale was found excellent in inhibiting the mycelium growth of Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger and Coprinus sp. but, reported to be less effective against Sclerotium rolfsii. While, Azadirachta indica seed oil was found very effective against the mycelium growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, Penicillium sp, and Coprinus sp. Extract of Allium cepa, Lantana camera, Eucalyptus hybrida and Allium sativum showed moderate effects on the mycelium growth of competitor moulds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Total Phenolic Content and in vitro Antiproliferative Activity of Tragia brevipes (Pax) and Tetradenia riparia (Hochst) Leaves Extract

Jean Chepng’etich, Chripus Ngule, Mercy Jepkorir, Regina Mwangangi, Douglas Kahura Njuguna, Jecinta Wanjiru Ndung’u, Daniel Kiboi, Peter Mwitari

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40058

Tragia brevipes and Tetradenia riparia have been widely used in traditional medicine. T. brevipes relief stomach pain and in treatment of rheumatism while T. riparia; heal chest pains, stomach-ache, malaria and act as antioxidant. However, scanty data exist on their potential anticancer activity. The total phenolic content was determined and anti-proliferative activity of the Methanol-Dichloromethane extract from the leaves evaluated against cancerous cell lines. The total phenolic content of the plants extract was determined using an UV visual spectrophotometer at 765 nm. The 3- (4-5-dimethyl-2-thiazoly)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation bioassay was used to test for anti-proliferative activity on Hela (cervical), DU145 (prostrate) and HCC (breast) cancer cell lines and Vero (normal) cell. T. brevipes and T. riparia had a phenolic concentration of 30.44 and 20.25 µg/ml, respectively. Both plants showed anti-proliferative activity on cancer cells with the most inhibited being DU145 with an IC50 of 29.67 ± 4.60 µg/ml for T. brevipes and 11.45 ± 0.87 µg/ml for T. riparia. The standard 5 Fluorouracil had an IC50 of 5.04 ± 4.12 µg/ml on DU145. T. riparia had the highest antiproliferative activity of 65.54 ± 16.85 µg/ml on Hela cells and 62.84 ± 1.10 µg/ml on HCC. T. brevipes had an IC50 of 661.11 ± 15. 12 µg/ml on Hela cells and 703.09 ± 18.35 µg/ml on HCC. Extracts from both plants were highly selective on DU145 cancer cells with a selectivity index (SI) of 21.62 for T. brevipes and 7.88 for T. riparia. Methanol-Dichloromethane extracts from T. brevipes and T. riparia exert anti-proliferative activity, however, the active compound (s) and the mechanisms of anti-proliferative action need to be investigated further.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-malarial Activity Evaluation of Extracts from Plants often used in the East African Region

Janvier Habinshuti, T. Akenga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40227

Biodiversity plays vital roles in maintaining human and animal health. A wide variety of plants, animals, and fungi are used as medicine, essential vitamins, painkillers. Natural products have been recognized and used as medicines by ancient cultures all around the world. About 119 pure chemicals are extracted from less than 90 species of higher plants and used as medicines throughout the world, for example, artemisinin and quinine for treatment of malaria. Malaria is the most important public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, and it is becoming more and more difficult to control. Although several attempts have been made on vaccine development, chemotherapy and vector control are currently the mainstays of malaria control. However, with increasing cases of drug-resistant strains of malaria parasites and expensive anti-malarial drugs coupled with the poor distribution of modern health facilities, there is a resurgence in use of herbal remedies to treat malaria and other infectious diseases, before seeking the conventional western remedies.  Although the use of herbal preparations for malaria is widespread in the Lake Victoria basin, there has been no previous validation of their efficacy and safety. Furthermore, there are no standard practices for quality assurance in sourcing of the herbal anti-malarial drugs. In this paper, a survey of the plants used for treatment and management of malaria in the Lake Victoria was carried out. Organic and water extracts from these plants were subjected to in vitro anti-plasmodial assays using W2 (CQ resistant) and D6 (CQ sensitive) strains. The results obtained to authenticate the use of these plants as anti-malarial herbs. A set of compounds have been isolated and characterized from the plant species that exhibited high anti-plasmodial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (Asteraceae) on Glycemia and Mating Behavior of Male Albino Rats

Jurbe Gofwan Gotep, Daniel Sudan Gbise, Sunday Makama, Francis Kanayo Okwuasaba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40702

Aims: To determine the effect of oral administration of Vernonia amygdalina ethanolic leaves extracts on blood glucose concentration of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic albino rats and the effect of the extract on the mating behavior of male albino rats.

Study Design and Methodology: Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were treated with 400 mg/kg of 70% ethanolic leaves extracts, chlorpropamide 50 mg/kg and distilled water 10 ml/kg respectively once daily for 14 days. The blood glucose concentration and weight were monitored. Oral glucose tolerance test was carried out using another set of rats according to the same grouping. Another set of rats were pretreated with the extract for 7 days and then challenged with alloxan. Sexual function parameters of mount, intromission and ejaculation were evaluated in a fourth set of rats which were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract. Rats treated with 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate and 10 ml/kg distilled water served as the positive and negative controls respectively.

Results: The results obtained showed that the extract significantly reduced blood glucose concentration of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats and also improved glucose tolerance. However, in rats pretreated with 400 mg/kg extract for 7 days and then challenged with alloxan, there was a significant increase in blood glucose concentration. No significant changes were observed in the sexual function parameters of rats treated with the extract.

Conclusion: The 70% ethanolic leaves extract of Vernonia amygdalina possesses blood glucose lowering activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and also improves glucose tolerance. However, it did not have aphrodisiac activity at the tested doses and duration of treatment.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Traditional and Pharmacological Uses of Croton bonplandianum with Special Reference to Phytochemical Aspect

Tanmay Ghosh, M. K. Biswas, Pradipta Roy, Chiranjib Guin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40697

Plant-based traditional medicine system continues to play a vital role in the healthcare system with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care. Modern knowledge on medicinal plant research till contains at least 25% drugs and many others, which are synthetic analogues, built on prototype compounds isolated from medicinal plants. The ongoing growing recognition of medicinal plants is due to escalating faith in herbal medicine. There are many contradictory theories on the subject of herbal Medicines and their relationship regarding with human physiology and mental function. There is a need to develop evaluative data by using sophisticated modern techniques of standardization of Ayurvedic formulations to tackle the issues of negative criticism of Ayurvedic formulations and increased toxicity reports. These kinds of phytochemical investigation both qualitatively and quantitatively will help in understanding the phytochemical composition and safety of herbal formulation. Croton bonplandianum Baill is often called Ban Tulsi (Jungle tulsi). The parts of plant are widely used in traditional system of medicine such as hepatoprotective, swelling of the body, cure against ring worms and skin disease, antihypertensive, antioxidant, wound healing, antifungal, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antitumor, anticancer, acute constipation, abdominal dropsy, internal abscesses, antifertility, antispasmodic, antiseptic, antidote, analgesic, repellent property against insects, nematicide, anticoronary, anti-inflammatory, larvicidal activity, antihelmentic, this is also used for treatment of cholera, boils, bowel complaints, chicken pox, diarrhoea, dysentry, eye diseases, cold and coughs, epilepsy, gastric disorders, insanity, jaundice, liver complaints, scurvy, sprains, malaria, rheumatism, and so on. Due to its slow rate of conventional multiplication, the plant is very high in demand. In this review report we collected information related to taxonomy, monographs, distribution, morphology, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of Croton bonplandianum Baill plant in details.