Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activities of some Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Infectious Diseases in the Vina and Mayo-Louti Divisions of Cameroon

Benjamin Tangue Talom, Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Michel Tagne Fokam, Gring Zigla, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Léopold Ngoune Tatsadjieu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39780

Background: In Cameroon, most peoples use traditional medicine treating infectious diseases. To verify the scientific bases of these locally used medicinal plants, an ethnobotanical survey was carried out in some villages of Vina and Mayo-Louti Divisions.

Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted through structured questionnaires among 31 traditional healers living in these divisions. With the medicinal plants revealed, a literature investigation on their therapeutic effects, as well as in vitro antimicrobial activity of these plants were conducted. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against the pathogens while the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined using the Broth dilution method.

Result: A total of 15 medicinal plants species belonging to 12 families are being used in the treatment of numerous infectious diseases in the Vina and Mayo-Louti Divisions. Khaya senegalensis (Meliaceae), Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae), Flacourtia flavescens wild (Salicaceae), Pterocarpus erinaceus (Fabaceae) and Boswellia dalzielii (Burseraceae) were the mostly used plants for the treatment of infectious diseases in the study areas. Maceration (43.75%) was the common mode of preparation, followed by infusion (31.25%) and decoction (25.00%). Bioassay showed that crude methanol extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus and Flacourtia flavescens were the most active plant extract with a MIC of 0.8 mg/ml on many tested bacteria. The antibacterial activity of Boswellia dalzeilii from Cameroon are reported here for the first time.

Conclusion: Many herbals remedies are used in these divisions for the treatment infectious diseases. The plants can be used as source of antibacterial drugs to treat infections caused by susceptible bacteria

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Assessment of Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Thrombolytic Activity of Six Available Citrus Fruits in Bangladesh: Relevant for Treating Neurodegenerative Disorder

Kushal Biswas, Saiyara Hossain, Sanzida Alam, Taposhi Sultana, Farzana Khan, Sanjay Dutta

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39693

Aim: Citrus fruits are well known for its medicinal and food value. Aim of this study is to investigate acetylcholinesterase ((AChE)) inhibitory activity, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitory activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols content and thrombolytic activities of crude methanol extracts of 6 citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus aurantifollia, Citrus bergamia, Citrus maxima, Citrus sinensis and Citrus macroptera).

Methods: The fruits were extracted by using methanol as solvent. Ellman’s colourimetric method was applied to determine both cholinesterase inhibitory activities, while folin-ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and aluminium chloride were used to quantify total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonol content of those fruits. Blood clot lysis method was applied for determining the thrombolytic activity of those fruits.

Results: All citrus fruits contain a good amount of phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. C. maxima found more prominent in containing phenolics and flavonols compare to other citrus fruits, with 414.06 ± 2.87 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/gm and 12.94 ± 1.31 mg Catechin Equivalent/gm dried extract respectively. Citrus sinensis showed the highest content in flavonoids with 21.16± 1.37 mg Catechin 20 Equivalent /gm dried extract. Citrus fruits are also a quality source of cholinesterase inhibitors. All the examined citrus fruits were found capable of inhibiting both acetylcholinesterases (AChE) as well as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). C. bergamia was most effective in inhibiting AChE with IC50 of 27.18 µg/ml where C. macroptera was best in inhibiting BuChE (IC50 32.5 µg/ml). But none of the citrus fruits was found fit for thrombolytic activity.

Conclusion: Citrus fruits are found the sound in inhibiting AChE and BuChE as well as containing Phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. But they lack in their thrombolytic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Documentation, Ethno-botanical and Ethno-medicinal Survey of Wild Leguminous Plants from Some Areas of District Rajouri, J&K State, India

Nazia Bi, Mamata Jamwal, Seema Devi, Namrata Sharma

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39262

Aim: To explore and collect data about ethno-botanical and ethno-medicinal uses of wild leguminous plants, growing in three tehsils of district Rajouri.

Study Design: Data about the various wild leguminous plants growing in the study area was gathered from the local people with the help of a self designed questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: Three tehsils (Nowshera, Sunderbani and Rajouri) of district Rajouri were visited for complete 2 year i.e. March 2012 to March 2014.

Methodology: Periodic field trips were conducted in rural and mountainous areas of the study area. During these trips, personal interviews were conducted with locals of the study area. These included the nomads (Gujjars and Bakkarwals), livestock rears, elderly community members, traditional healers and practitioners. These people were specifically interviewed for the traditional knowledge about legumes.

Results: A total of 51 species of family Fabaceae were collected from the study areas. These species cover an altitudinal gradient of 426-1015 masl and are known by different local names. Out of the 51enlisted legume species, only 43 were found to carry immense ethno-botanical and ethno-medicinal importance.

Conclusion: Legumes are of huge importance to human beings. The plants species enlisted and studied in the present communication represent low priced and regionally available quality nutrition for the local people. Detailed work is needed on the same aspect that will further enhance our understanding about the medicinal and nutritional values of ethno-botanically and ethno-medicinally important plant species of the family Fabaceae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antileishmanial Effect of Coffea arabica, Salvia rhytidea and Bunium persicum against Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica Promastigotes and Their Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activities

Fatemeh Sharifi, Iraj Sharifi, Mostafa Pournamdari, Fariba Sharififar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39364

Aims: This study was aimed to use Coffea arabica, Salvia rhytidea and Bonium persicum extracts against Leishmania major and L. tropica promastigotes to compare various concentrations of these plant extracts. In addition, their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities were also evaluated.

Study Design: This study was performed experimentally using various concentrations of three medicinal plant extracts compared to control groups.

Methodology: Fresh seeds of C. arabica and B. persicum and leaves of S. rhytidea were powdered and each plant material was extracted by ethyl alcohol via warm maceration method. Complete medium was used to prepare nine final concentrations (1-1000 µg/ml) for experiments. The cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extracts were evaluated using colorimetric cell viability WST1 and DPPH assays. All experiments were performed in triplicate and analyzed by t-test. The optical density (OD) values as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to calculate the IC50 values. Selectivity index (SI) of the plant extracts was not attributed to cytotoxicity when it was ≥ 10.

Results: The results indicated that B. persicum extract had potent antileishmanial activity against the promastigotes of both Leishmania species based on a dose-dependent response (

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phyto-extracts, Biological Agents and Chemicals against the Development of Alternaria brassicae in vitro and in vivo

M. K. Biswas, Tanmay Ghosh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/40412

Alternaria leaf blight caused by Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicola, is one of the most destructive diseases of mustard (Brassica  campestris, B. juncea and B.napus) in West Bengal, causing considerable damages to the crop. The experiment was conducted under in vitro and in vivo conditions to see the effect of bio-agents, plant extracts and chemicals (fungicide and SAR compound) against Alternaria brassicae. Maximum inhibition in mycelial growth (95.56%) was observed with Mancozeb 75% Wp followed by Lantana camera (80%), Salicylic acid (73.33%), Allium sativum (54.44%) and Zingiber officinale (17.78%) in comparison to control. Foliar spray with fungicide (Mancozeb 75% WP @ 0.2%) was found to be most effective in reducing disease severity (81,23%) and infection rate which increased the yield (77.23%) of mustard over untreated control. Among the plant extracts, Lantana camera was found to be excellent in controlling the  Alternaria blight infection in the field (71.92% reduction in disease severity and 68.18% increase in yield) in comparison to salicylic acid (SAR compound) and bio-agent (Trichoderma viride) 48.33% and 36.27% reduction in  disease severity  respectively.