Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Some Minerals and Trace Elements in Medicinal Plants - Acalypha indica (L.), Datura metel (L.) and Tylophora indica Used in the Treatment of Ashtma

Mohanraj Pattar, B. R. Kerur, C. Nirmala

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39095

In the current era, medicinal plants are the major resources of indigenous medicines in the traditional medicine system and are playing an important role. Over 80% of the world population mainly depend only on traditional/folk medicinal plants for plant-based medicines to control many of the diseases and their extracts for health care. In the present study, the medicinal plants commonly used by the local people and traditional practitioners of Kappathgudda area, Gadag District, North Karnataka region for treatment of Asthma viz. Acalypha indica L., Datura metel L. and Tylophora indica belongs to Euphorbiaceous, Solanaceae and Asclepiadaceae families were selected for elemental analysis due to its wider application in the traditional medicinal system. Analytical Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer technique was adopted for the determination of various elements and indicated that Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Ti, Mn, V, Zn, Cu and Cd were present in all samples. The obtained results also revealed that the mineral and trace elemental contents were well within the permissible range and hence the medicinal plants are safe to be utilized in the drug formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antiplasmodial Activity and Safety of Flower Extracts of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium, Singly and in Combination with Chloroquine, Lumefantrine and Piperaquine

Godfrey K. Wachira, Francis W. Muregi, Francis T. Kimani, Jeremiah W. Gathirwa, Joseph K. Ng’ang’a, Peter G. Mwitari, Festus M. Tolo, Lucia Keter, Beatrice Irungu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39246

Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial activity and safety of organic and aqueous flower extracts of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium from Kenya, singly and in combination with chloroquine, lumefantrine and piperaquine.

Methodology: Antiplasmodial activity of organic and aqueous flower extracts of C. cinerariaefolium was assessed in vitro by serial micro-dilution assay technique against Plasmodium falciparum, and in vivo using the 4-day suppressive test as well as the established infection test against P. berghei ANKA in mice. To determine the safety of the extracts, cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts against Vero E6 cells and acute toxicity studies in mice were also done.

Results: In vitro antiplasmodial assays showed that methanolic extract of C. cinerariaefolium flowers was active, petroleum ether extract was moderately active, while the aqueous extract was inactive. Methanolic extract combined with chloroquine (CQ) against CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (W2) P. falciparum showed marked synergy. Both methanol and aqueous extracts (1000mg/kg) showed chemosuppression of >45% (P<0.05) in both 4-day suppression test and established infection test against P. berghei ANKA in mice. Lumefantrine (LU) or piperaquine (PQ) combined with either methanol or aqueous extracts showed chemosuppression of >63% (P<0.05) against LU-resistant and PQ-resistant P. berghei ANKA strains, indicating synergistic interactions. Methanolic and aqueous flower extracts of C. cinerariaefolium had no cytotoxic effect on Vero E6 cells and no overt signs of toxicity in mice. 

Conclusion: The findings showed that C. cinerariaefolium flower extracts are safe in mammalian systems, have antiplasmodial activity and have potentiation effect of conventional antimalarials. There is need therefore to further explore the plant’s bioactive molecules which may serve as template for development of novel, effective and affordable antimalarial agents for management of malaria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiurobacterial Activity of Punica granatum L. Seed Extract

Sarita Das, Suchasmita Panigrahi, Preetilata Panda

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/38980

The natural products derived from medicinal plants are proven to be the abundant source of biologically active compounds, which have been the basis of development of new pharmaceuticals. The present study was carried out to understand the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed (MPG) against the clinically isolated urinary tract infections (UTI) causing bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using different methods i.e. disc diffusion, agar well diffusion, modified agar well diffusion. Colony forming units per ml (CFU/ml) were also determined for wild and MPG treated bacteria by spread plate and absorbance method. Phytochemical analysis of MPG and biochemical characterization of K. pneumoniae and E. coli was carried out using a standard protocol. MPG was a dark red colour sticky mass with a yield of 26.87% (w/w). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The present investigation showed that MPG was effective against K. pneumoniae and E. coli. K. pneumoniae was a multi-drug resistant strain, found to be more sensitive to MPG in comparison to E. coli. The CFU/ml was found to be reduced in a dose-dependent manner in MPG treated urobacteria, which suggests that P. granatum                            seeds can be used as a remedy for UTI and also can be taken regularly to prevent the recurrence of UTI.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiviral Activity of Nauclea latifolia Root Bark Extract Against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Damian C. Odimegwu, Charles O. Esimone

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/39383

Extract of Nauclea latifolia (NL) root bark collected from the Nigerian flora was examined for anti-RSV activity. Preliminary data showed anti-RSV activities with IC50 =75.62 µg/ml when tested against the recombinant strain rgRSV expressing the green fluorescent protein. Corresponding assays for the cytotoxic effect of the extract against utilized cell lines gave TC50 = 333.82 µg/ml. Further screening of against the circulating RSV A2 strain established their promising anti-RSV utility. Time of additional studies for the elucidation of the possible mechanism of action gave 74.38, 69.42, and 71.90% reduction of RSV plaque forming units at the respective 0, 2, and 4 hours post-infection addition times.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis and Time Killing Kinetics of Calotropis procera Extracts on Some Selected Pathogens

O. S. Asoso, K. O. Oladunmoye, A. O. Ogundare

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2018/34080

The proximate composition and time killing kinetics of the leaf and stem extracts of Calotropis procera were carried out. The proximate composition showed moisture content of (10.45 and 9.78%), protein (16.20 and 8.15%), fat (1.99 and 0.96%), ash (14.32 and 6.39%), crude fibre (6.73 and 23.23%) and carbohydrate (49.49 and 51.49%) for leaf and the stem respectively. Twelve pathogenic bacteria and five fungi species were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo-State and typed cultures of the organisms were collected from National Institute of Medical Research (American type culture collection centre (ATCC), USA). The time-kill studies are important because comprehensive information about pharmacodynamics of a putative antibacterial agent may not be gained simply through endpoints such as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. This study is done to examine the time-frame required for the microbes to be killed. It was determined on each isolates with the extracts taken at their Minimum Inhibition Concentration values. The study was evaluated in hours of 0 hr, 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs, the methanol leaf extract kill most of the organisms within 24 hrs while aqueous leaf extract was unable to kill most of the organisms under 48 hrs.