Open Access Original Research Article

Premna odorata Volatile Oil as a New Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth Inhibitor for the Control of Tuberculosis Disease

Abeer H. Elmaidomy, Hossam M. Hassan, Elham Amin, Waleed Mohamed, Mona H. Hetta

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/38375

Aims: This study aimed to identify and compare Premna odorata Blanco volatile oil (VO) for the first time; isolated from different plant organs (leaves, young stems, and flowers) with evaluating the oil antituberculosis (anti-TB) activity.

Study Design: Experimental design was carried out by using hydrodistillation method, GC/MS analysis and MeDipro Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Antigen ELISA Technique (MMA-ELISA) accompanied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, between May to July 2017.

Methodology: P. odorata VO was identified using GC/MS analysis, the oil anti-TB activity was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo MMA-ELISA accompanied by PCR analysis.

Results: GC/MS analysis revealed that P. odorata VO consisted of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and higher alkanes; where monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were represented the major oils fractions. Trans-caryophyllene (29.403% & 14.638%) and β-phellandrene (22.390% & 11.701%) were the major compounds in the leaves and young stems oils, respectively. While α-pinene (38.160%) was a characteristic component of the flower's oil. MMA-ELISA showed that a dose of 100 µl/ml in vitro and 300 µl/ml in vivo; the leaves, young stems, and the flowers oils separately had significant anti-TB activities with measured values > 1.5 µg/ml MTB antigen; while the three organs oils in combination 1:1:1 increased the potency of the oils against MTB with measured values < 1.5 µg/ml MTB antigen with PCR negative analysis.

Conclusion: P. odorata VO exhibited Anti-TB activity which Anti-TB could be related to the presence of cyclic terpenes (major) and acyclic oxygenated terpenes (minor) compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Antimalarial Medicinal Plants Used in Butebo County, Eastern Uganda

Kodi Philip, Mwangi Muthoni Elizabeth, Peter Kiplagat Cheplogoi, Kariuki T. Samuel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35368

Aims: The ethno botanical survey conducted was aimed at collecting, identifying ant malarial plants and documenting ethno botanical information on traditional herbal medicines used to treat malaria in Butebo County in Eastern Uganda.

Study Design: The ethno botanical survey was conducted using a questionnaire in five Sub Counties each consisting of 10 respondents.

Place and Duration of Study: The ethno botanical survey was carried out in Eastern Uganda, in Butebo County, in 2014.

Methodology: The plants collected and information documented was got by interviewing respondents using semi–structured, open and closed ended questionnaire that were administered to traditional healers and herb sellers using Snowball sampling method. The most important information collected included knowledge on the use of medicinal plant species, the local names of plant species, parts of plant used, dosage, methods of herbal preparation and drying, mode of administration, duration of treatment and traditional uses. A total of 50 households were interviewed using questionnaires, ten respondents were selected from each Sub County. Medicinal plants collected were identified and their Voucher specimens deposited at the Department of Botany herbarium Makerere University for future specifications.

Results: Thirty three plant species from 30 genera that consisted of (Flueggea virosa (wild) Voigt, Securidaca longipedunculata, Erythrina abyssinica, Melia azedarach, Carrisa edulis Fork, Harrisonia abyssinica Olive., Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl., Psidium guajava, Citrus sinensis, Schkuhria pinnata (lam.), Lantana camara, Carica papaya, Mangifera indica L., Azadirachta indica., Persea americana Mill., Bidens pilosa, Cymbopogon citratus (DC), Plectranthus barbatus, Maytenus senegalensis, Citrus reticulate, Ocimum gratssiumum, Ocimum basilicum, Croton macrostachyus Olive, Oncoba spinosa Forssk, Steganotania araliacea, Acacia sieberiana, Ormocarpum trachycarpum, Acacia hockii De willd, Euclea latideus Staff, Cassia hirsuta, Chamaecrista nigricans Greene, Butyrospermuum paradoxum, and Aristolochia tomentosa (Sims) were identified as being used by communities as antimalarial plants. These belong to 23 families of: Rutaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Celastraceae, Meliaceae, Asteraceae, Papillionaceae, Polygalaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Umbelliferae, Sapotaceae, Apocynaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ebenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Lauranceae, Myrtaceae, Verbenaceae, Poaceae and Celastraceae. The most frequently used medicinal plants were from the families; Rutaceae and Lamiaceae (13.0% each) that had three plant species each. Ten species (30.3%) were identified and documented for the first time in Uganda to treat malaria including: O. spinosa, S. araliacea, A. sieberiana, O. trachycarpum, A. hockii, E. latideus, C. hirsuta, C. nigricans, A. tomentosa and B. paradoxum. The most commonly used plant part was the root (44.68%), followed by leaves (38.30%), stem (6.38%) each, bark and whole plant (4.30%) each and the least was the seeds with 2.13%. The growth habits included; trees (48.48%), shrubs and herbs (24.24% each) and the climbers with the least percentage of (3.03%). The largest habitant of the medicinal plants was found in the homesteads (21.10%), followed by wooded grassland and garden with (18.20%), grasslands (15.20%), open grassland (9.10%), cultivated and road side (6.10% each), garden edge and forest had the lowest value of 3.0% each. Most of the plant materials were dried in the shade, pounded into a powder and taken orally as water decoctions (76.50%) and infusions (23.50%).

Conclusion: Many plants used traditionally for the treatment of malaria were identified and claims of some of the medicinal plants documented in the survey are supported by literature. However the scientific validation of the traditional claims of antimalarial activity of some of these plants not researched on is needed. This includes testing for efficacy, safety (toxicity), antiplasmodial screening and structure elucidation to find out the identity of active compounds present. This would make them considered for future research for active compounds and the possible synthesis of new, cheaper and more effective ant malarial drugs. This would help in conserving and sustainable use of the ant malarial plants. Therefore it is necessary to carry out research to solve these problems so that the lives of people are not at risk. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-bacterial Effect of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extract of Ptericarpus erinaceous Stem Bark

S. Sarkiyayi, I. J. Bakari

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31571

Aim: The phytochemical screenings of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Ptericarpus erinaceous stem bark were investigated against three microorganisms.

Study Design: Five groups of experimental animals were used for the study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry Laboratories, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria between April 2016 and September 2016.

Materials and Methods: The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ptericarpus erinaceous stem bark were investigated against three microorganisms.

Results: The result of the phytochemical screening of Ptericarpus erinaceous revealed the present of alkaloid, tannins, glycosides, terpenes and phenols. Our findings on anti-microbial activity of the plant stem bark extract showed that the aqueous extract has higher activity with a zone of inhibition of 21 mm and 19 mm at higher concentration of 100 mg/ml of the extract for Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia respectively when compared to the ethanolic extract of the plant. This perhaps may be due to the presence of bioactive constituent that were present in the aqueous extract but not found in the ethanolic extract. The plant has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 50 mg/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 100 mg/ml respectively in both Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia.

Conclusion: These findings have ascertained that this medicinal plant Ptericarpus erinaceous used locally in the northern part of Nigeria by traditional herbalist for the treatment of infections/diseases could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs such as production of new antibiotics to help in combating the increase in resistance to synthetic drugs by most microorganisms and may serve as a cheaper source of antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Antimalarial Plants in Areas of: Abukamola, Angeta, Oculokori and Omarari of Alebtong District in Northern Uganda

Dickson Robert Opio, Edward Andama, Gbednet Theophilus Kureh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/38043

Rural populations depend heavily on traditional medicine to manage diseases, yet knowledge on traditional medicine is continually being lost. This study was undertaken to document antimalarial plants in a rural community with the view of contributing to conservation of traditional knowledge on antimalarial medicinal plants.

The study was carried out in areas of; Abukamola, Angeta, Oculokori, and Omarari of Alebtong district in Northern Uganda in September and October 2015. A semi structured interview questionnaire was administered randomly to households and to selected key informants. This questionnaire was tailored to providing socio-economic and information on antimalarial plants used in this area to treat malaria.

The majority (67.5%) of the respondents were subsistence farmers. Fourty three plants belonging to 26 families were identified. Papilionaceae followed by Asteraceae were the most represented families. Securidaca longipenduculata Fresen was the most known plant species for use in treatment of malaria PRK (23.5%). Most antimalarial medicine was derived from plant roots. The medicine was commonly prepared by macerating fresh pounded plant material in water. The extract in water was mostly administered orally. The use of antimalarial herbal medicines in the treatment of malaria was mainly attributed to the cheap price (32.2%) followed by easy access (27.2%) of the medicines and their perceived effectiveness (23.5%) among other reasons. Most (98.8%) of the plants were obtained from the wild and according to 98.8% of the respondents, the plants were still abundant in the wild. However, despite the plant abundance, conservation techniques were still suggested to protect the plants, top amongst these techniques were creating herbal gardens, suggestion by 25.9% of respondents; tree planting suggested by 24.7%.

Several antimalarial plants belonging to different families were document by this study. The adequate knowledge on Securidaca longipenduculata Fresen in treating malaria warrants further investigations of its bioactive properties.

Open Access Review Article

Essential Oils for Myiasis Control: Potentialities for Ecofriendly Insecticides

Amanda Chaaban, Erik Nunes Gomes, Vera Maria Carvalho Silva Santos, Cícero Deschamps, Marcelo Beltrão Molento

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/38112

Background: Flies that cause myiasis are considered one of the main ectoparasites affecting livestock. This pathology may produce a reduction in body development, compromises animal welfare, and in severe cases, can lead to death. Although the control of this pathology relies on the use of synthetic insecticides, drug failure has been reported worldwide. Essential oils (EO) are an alternative to control infecting flies, with reports showing 100% efficacy. Studies on the chemical structure of EO compounds linked to their specific bioactivity can shed light for efficient myiasis control. Thus, we need to explore new possibilities of EO, including the identification of their chemical composition for the development of an ecofriendly control of myiasis.

Aims: The aim of the present article is to provide a detailed review about the Brazilian native and adapted plants and their potential biological activity.