Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Leaf Extract and Fractions of Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl. & K.Krause) Danser Parasitic on Citrus angustifolia

S. K. Nwafuru, T. C. Akunne, I. C. Ezenyi, C. O. Okoli

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37537

Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of the leaves of the plant.

Study Design: The study adopted the experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria, between 2014-2016.

Methodology: The methanol extract (ME), obtained by cold maceration was fractionated in a silica gel column to afford n-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. The extract and fractions were subjected to phytochemical analysis using standard methods. Acute toxicity (oral, intraperitoneal) and median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined in mice. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated using topical acute edema of mouse ear induced by xylene and systemic acute edema of rat paw induced by carrageenan. Chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using formaldehyde arthritis test in rats and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats.

Results: In topical acute inflammation, ME, EF and MF caused significant (P = .05, P < 0.01) inhibition of mouse ear edema and their effects were comparable to those of indomethacin. In systemic acute inflammation, ME, EF and MF produced significant (P = .05, P < .001) and sustained inhibition of the development of paw edema in rats. HF did not produce any significant edema inhibition in these models of inflammation. Studies in chronic inflammation showed that the extract and fractions caused significant (P = .05) inhibition of the global edematous response to formaldehyde arthritis in rats. They also significantly (P < .01) inhibited the formation of granuloma on implanted cotton pellets in rats.

Conclusion: These findings show that T. bangwensis parasitic on C. angustifolia leaf extracts and fractions of increasing polarity possess anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytotherapy of Djallonke Lambs Co-infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Trichostrongylidae) Using Methanol Extracts of Two Medicinal Plants in Menoua Division, West Region of Cameroon

Ndah Germaine, Fonteh A. Florence, Cedric Yamssi, J. Wabo Poné

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37395

This study was performed on the West African Dwarf sheep which were experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostromgylus colubriformis. We intended to investigate the anthelmintic potential of two plants: Harungana madagascariensis and Momordica foetida. During this experiment, 24 male lambs (Age: 3-5 months) were divided into 8 groups: An untreated control (Group 1), Albendazole 7.5 mg/kg (positive control Group); Harungana. madagascariensis 125 mg/ kg (Group 3); Harungana madagascariensis 250 mg/ kg (Group 4); Harungana madagascariensis 500 mg/ kg (Group 5); M. foetida 125 mg/ kg (Group 6); M. foetida 250 mg/kg (Group 7); M. foetida 500 mg/kg (Group 8).

Treatment with albendazole 7.5 mg/kg, M. foetida (250 and 500 mg/kg) and H. madagascariensis (500 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg per gram of faeces, adult worm load and diarrhoea scores, while improving feed intake, food conversion efficiency and weight gain of lambs when compared with untreated controls The highest EPG reduction rate was recorded in albendazole treatment group (98.64%) followed by M. foetida 500 mg/kg (77.78%), then H. madagascariensis with a reduction rate of 52.03%. There was a strong positive correlation between food conversion efficiency and weight gain (r = 0.99**, P=0.00); while adult worm burden and food conversion efficiency were negatively correlated (r = -0.68, P = 0.00).

Methanol extracts of M. foetida possessed significant anthelmintic potential at dose 500 and 250 mg/kg while H. madagsacariensis. exhibited only mild anthelmintic activity at 500 mg/kg. However, H. madagascariensis was more efficient in preventing or treating diarrhoea at 250 mg/kg than M. foetida at the same dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Egyptian Withania somnifera L., Chemotype and Comparative in vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts and Isolated Withanolides

Rasha A. Nassra, Rahma Sr. Mahrous, Hoda M. Fathy, Rasha M. Abu El-Khair, Abdallah A. Omar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/38239

Aims: To investigate the chemotype of the Egyptian Withania somnifera and explore the cytotoxic activity of different extracts as well as the major isolated withanolides on four cell lines of common cancer variants in Egypt, both in vitro and using computational methods.

Study Design: Preparation of the different plant parts extract, determination of the chemotype of the Egyptian plant and bioactivity guided isolation of its major constituents.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of biochemistry, faculty of medicine and department of pharmacognosy, faculty of pharmacy between November 2014 and July 2016.

Methodology: We included four parts of the plant to be investigated on the four common cancer cell lines found in Egypt (liver, breast, lung and colon), in vitro MTT assay as well as docking analysis with the epidermal growth factor receptor identified as cancer molecular targets were performed, synergy analysis was carried on the most active withanolides.

Results: Roots extract showed selective cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells while the 50% ethanolic extract of leaves showed selective inhibition against breast cancer cells. All investigated extracts and withanolides E, C and S showed cytotoxic activity against liver cancer cells with the highest activity manifested by the leaves extracts. Withanolide C showed anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer cells. The highest cytotoxic activity aganist HepG2 was observed for a combination of the active withanolides (E, C, and S) with IC50 value < 0.1 μg/ml.

Conclusion: Egyptian Withania somnifera is a subtype of chemotype III with different biological activity than the Indian one. Withanolides E, C and S might be a potential lead in the development of new anti-cancer treatment modalities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Anti-proliferation and Cytotoxicity Activities of Gossypium hirsutum toward Standard HepG2, A549, MCF-7 and U87 Cancer Cell Lines Compared to Huvec, 3T3 Normal Cells

Fatemeh Sharifi, Fariba Sharififar, Iraj Sharifi, Mostafa Pournamdari, Touba Eslaminejad, Mehrdad Khatami

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/38160

Aims: Cancer has become a growingly medical and health care issue with no effective treatment modality. Chemotherapy besides existing drugs is associated with severe adverse side effects. The present study was aimed to explore the anti-proliferative/cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Gossypium hirsutum boll crude extract on cancer cell lines compare to the normal cell lines.

Study Design: This study aims to explore the cytotoxic effect of G. hirsutum crude extract on human cancer cell-lines, compared with normal cells by using colorimetric cell viability assay and also the antioxidant activities of the crude extract were carried out by DPPH and FRAP assays.

Methodology: Fresh G. hirsutum bolls were gathered from the south-eastern of Iran. Soxhlet apparatus method was used for extracting the bolls. Complete medium was used to prepare six final concentrations (1-1000 μg/mL) for experiments. The cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the bolls extract were carried out by using colorimetric cell viability, DPPH and FRAP assays. All experiments were repeated in triplicate and analyzed by t-test. 50% cytotoxicity concentrations (CC50) value was calculated by Probit test.

Results: The extract performed a potent index of anti-proliferation/cytotoxicity effect on three cancer cell lines as demonstrated by the low IC50 values (2.72, 4.02 and 4.22 μg/mL) on human breast cancer (MCF-7), human lung cancer (A549) and glioblastoma cells (U87), respectively compared to the normal cells. Results also confirmed the best antioxidant activities of the crude extract. The selectivity index (SI) as the measure of toxicity ranged in a normal and safe level.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that the G. hirsutum boll extract displayed potent anti-proliferation/cytotoxicity index against cancer cell lines and great antioxidant power. Thus, experiments are essential to analyze, isolate and characterize its compositions for future in vivo studies.

Open Access Review Article

Nigerian Medicinal Plants with Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Hypertensive Properties

J. C. Ozougwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37468

This review paper examined some of the Nigerian medicinal plants with anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties. The study revealed Sixteen species of Nigerian medicinal plants with anti-diabetic properties and they are Dioscorea dumentorum, Anthocleista vogelii, Laranthus begwensis, Catharantus roseus, Ceiba pentandra, Musa paradisiaca, Emilia sonchifora, Solenostemon monostachys, Carica papaya, Ipomea batatas, Musa sapientum, Myrianthus arboreus, Allium cepa, Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale and twenty-one Nigerian medicinal plants with anti-hypertensive properties which include Hibiscus sabdariffa, Vitex domeina, Manihot esculent, Persea americana, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Nuclear latifolia, Paretta crassipes,Vitex dodiana, Phyllanthus amarus, Lepidium latifolium, Rhaptopetalum coriaceum, Musanga cecropioides, Vernonia amygdalina, Parinari curatellifolia, Psidium guajava, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Persea americana, Loranthus micranthus, Acalypha wilkesiana hoffmannii, and Allium sativum. Further studies on these medicinal plants are necessary to elucidate the pharmacological activities of these medicinal plants which will stimulate future            pharmaceutical development of therapeutically beneficial drugs in the management of          diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Clinical trials of these medicinal plants in humans                  are recommended to prove their efficacy in humans and determine their mechanism of            action, safety/toxicity profile and chemically characterize the bioactive principle as a prerequisite for drug development. The huge medicinal plants available in Nigeria should be fruitfully exploited for health care and economic development of Nigeria in other to free Nigerians from disease and poverty.