Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Mentha piperita, Tragia involucrata (L) and Urtica massaica Used as Medicinal Plants in Tanzania

Barakaeli Abdiel Ndossi, Mhuji Kilonzo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36484

Aims: To evaluate antimicrobial activity of Mentha piperita, Tragia involucrata (L) and Urtica massaica used as medicinal plants in Tanzania.

Study Design: Experimental study was carried out by using 96 wells micro dilution method.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Dodoma University, Dodoma-Tanzania, between April and July 2017.

Methodology: Minimum inhibitory concentration of plants extracts against the tested bacterial and fungal species was determined by using 96 wells micro dilution method. 

Results: Plant extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC range of 1.56 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL. The highest activity was shown by M. piperita chloroform leaf extract, M. piperita methanol leaf extract, T. involucrate chloroform leaf extract, T. involucrate ethyl acetate leaf extract,             U. massaica chloroform leaf extract and U. massaica methanol leaf extract with MIC value of 1.56 mg/mL against K. oxytoca, E. coli, S. typhi, C. neuforman and P. aeruginosa.

Conclusion: The extracts from M. piperita, T. involucrate and U. massaica exhibited antimicrobial activity at various degrees against seven tested Gram-negative bacterial and two fungal        species namely S. kisarawe, S. typhi, E. coli, K. oxytoca, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, P. mirabilis,               C. neoformans and C. albicans respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Healing Role of Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers] and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Capsules in Premature Aging Due to Stress: A Comparative Open Clinical Trial

Santosh Pal, A. Ramamurthy, Sudipta Rath, Bidhan Mahajon

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37279

Aims: To find out the comparative effects of the capsules prepared from the drugs Guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers] and Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in cases of premature aging due to stress.

Study Design: Comparative open clinical trial.

Place and Duration of Study: IPD and OPD of National Institute of Ayurveda and Seth Soorajmal Bombawala Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, between June 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: We included 30 patients (14 men, 16 women; age range 25-60 years) with premature aging due to stress, without any other acute or serious systemic disorders. They were randomly divided in three groups with 10 patients in each. Group A- was treated with capsule of Guduchi 1 gm/day, Group B–capsule of Amalaki 1 gm/day and Group C- was treated with 500mg capsules of Guduchi and Amalaki separately once daily for 3 months. Visual Analogue Scale and Stress were assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Objective parameters like CBC, CRP, FBS, Blood Urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT and Serum cholesterol were also analysed.

Results: Marked effect of therapy was observed in group C, where the significant changes (p<0.05) were observed on subjective parameters like Dizziness, Constipation, Aching Muscles, Sleep abnormality, Loss of appetite, Fatigue, Generalized Weakness. In HARS scale significant changes (p<0.01) were found on Anxious Mood and Intellectual power, along with on Tension, Fears, Insomnia, Depressed Mood and Gastrointestinal Symptoms statistically significant (p<0.05) changes were also observed. Similarly on objective parameters like Hb%, Eosinophils and TPLC, significant effect (p<0.05) of therapy was observed. Along with these marked significant (p<0.01) effect was observed in improvement of Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, TRBC, TPLC and PCV. But In ANOVA Test for Intergroup Comparison no significant changes (p>0.05) were found except on the parameters like abnormality in sleep, FBS and TLC where p value was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Both the test drugs, stem of Guduchi and dried fruit rinds of Amalaki were found to be significantly effective in premature ageing due to stress, but the effect was quantitatively better in Group C (Guduchi and Amalaki). However these findings need further validation in large scale study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Analysis of the Methanol Extracts of the Roots, Stems and Leaves of Three Phyllanthus Species

T. M. Ajibua, S. P. Bako, S. O. Alonge

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36508

This study was conducted to identify and compare the phytochemicals in the roots, stems and leaves of three Phyllanthus species: Phyllanthus discoideus, Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus muellerianus. The phytohemicals were extracted from the parts of the three Phyllanthus species with methanol for qualitative and quantitative determination following standard procedures. The data obtained revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols, although at varying levels in the various parts of the Phyllanthus species. Generally, most of the phytochemicals are of higher concentration either in the leaves or stems than in the roots of the Phyllanthus species, but phenols appeared to be very low in the various parts of these plants. The pooled data showed that, there were more tannins, saponins and phenols in the leaves than in the stems and roots, but more of alkaloids in the stems and flavonoids in the roots. The highest alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols were extracted from Phyllanthus muellarianus while the highest saponins was extracted from Phyllanthus discoideus. The study showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenols in all the Phyllanthus species, but at varying concentrations in the various species and their parts. These differences in phytochemical                      levels would likely confer unique medicinal potentials on the various parts of each of these    species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lead Acetate Induced Cerebral Tissue Damage; The Effect of Phoenix dactylifera Pits Extract

Isei Michael Osawe Kayode, Iwalewa Ezekiel Olugbenga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37302

This study investigates effect of Phoenix dactylifera pits extract (PdPE) on Lead acetate induced cerebral tissue damage. Wistar rats of average weight 150 g were divided into seven groups of six animals each. GRPI animals received distilled water only, GRPII received 60 mg/kg Lead acetate 5 times a week for 3 weeks then distilled water only for ten days (Negative control), GRPIII and GRPIV (treatment groups) received 60 mg/kg Lead acetate 5 times a week for 3 weeks then treated with 150 mg/kg PdPE and 300 mg/kg PdPE respectively for 10 days, Group V and Group VI (protective groups) received 150 mg/kg PdPE and 300 mg/kg PdPE respectively for 10 days then 60 mg/kg Lead acetate 5 times a week for 3weeks, while GRPVII animals received 60 mg/kg Lead acetate 5 times a week for 3 weeks then treated with 25 mg/kg Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) alone 4 times a week then distilled water for 3 days.

Lead acetate induced cerebral tissue damage was evident from depleted reduced-glutathione and lipid peroxidation as shown by elevated malondialdehyde and nitrite concentration. Histological examination of the cerebral tissue showed congestion of the meningeal vessels and cellular infiltration. Malondialdehyde and nitrite were significantly reduced by 300 mg/kg PdPE (P<0.03). 300 mg/kg PdPE protective and treatment groups and 25 mg/kg DMSA ameliorates antioxidant depletion and showed significant protective effect against cerebral tissue damage. Memory assessment showed that 300 mg/kg PdPE and 25 mg/kg DMSA treatment significantly alleviate memory impairment induced by Lead acetate.

Results from the study indicate that PdPE has the ability to alleviate lead acetate induced cerebral tissue damage in rats. PdPE may exert its protective and therapeutic effect against lead-induced cerebral damage possibly through its antioxidant mechanisms and due to the presence of membrane protecting unsaturated fatty acids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Total Triterpenoids from Poria cocos

Yihai Wang, Guoqiong Wang, Xiaomin Yi, Jinmei Zhang, Xiangjiu He

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37908

Aims: To prepare the Poria cocos total triterpenoids (PCTT) from the surface layer of Poria cocos and evaluate its pharmacological effect on alcohol induced-liver injury.

Study Design: PCTT was prepared from the surface layer of Poria cocos and characterized. Its effects on alcohol induced-liver injury models were investigated in vitro and in vivo.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, between January 2014 and March 2014.

Methodology: PCTT was prepared via D101 macroporous resin chromatography and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of PCTT against alcohol induced-liver injury were investigated in L-02 cell line and mice.

Results: PCTT containing 63.95% triterpenoids showed potent radical-scavenging activities in vitro. PCTT (10 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL) treatments increased the viability of cells significantly in alcohol-treated L-02 cells. In vivo, pretreated with PCTT suppressed the acute ethanol gavage induced increase of the serum aminotransferase (AST), aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver triacylglycerol (TG) level in mice. Simultaneously, PCTT also enhanced the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and restored glutathione (GSH) level in liver.

Conclusion: This study suggests that PCTT, containing 63.95% triterpenoids, could significantly improve the impairments of liver induced by alcohol and suitable for alcohol induced-liver injury patients as medicine or functional food, which would be a new candidate for the treatment of alcohol liver disease (ALD).