Open Access Short Research Article

In vitro Antiplasmodial and Antioxidant Activities of Entandrophragma cylindricum (Meliaceae) Extracts

Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, J. Wabo Pone, Nguemfo Tchakungni Arlette, D. Mohanakrishnan, Garima Mittal, Dinkar Sahal, Mpoame Mbida

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36352

Malaria is still regarded as a major global infectious disease in the 21st Century with a high pediatric mortality toll in the developing world. In Africa, malaria is one of the diseases causing the most morbidity and mortality. These past 30 years, malaria parasites especially P. falciparum have rapidly developed resistance to commonly used antimalarial drugs. New, more effective and affordable anti-malarial drugs are needed. Medicinal plants play a key role in the control of malaria, especially where access to modern health services is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimalarial and antioxidant properties of Entandrophragma cylindricum stem bark extracts. Three types of extracts (methanolic, Ethyl Acetate and aqueous extracts) were prepared and tested on both Chloroquino-Sensitive 3D7 and Chloroquino-Resistant INDO strains of Plasmodium falciparum. These parasite strains were cultivated in vitro by the method of Trager and Jensen. Cultures were maintained in fresh O+ human erythrocytes at 4% haematocrit in complete medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% Albumax II at 37°C under reduced O2. The synchronized ring stage development of P. falciparum Pf3D7 and PfINDO strains were incubated in a 96-well microplate for 48h with different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) of plant extracts. Zero point four (0.4%) DMSO in RPMI was used as negative control, while Chloroquine (1 nM) was used as positive control and the results were obtained by the microtiter plate based SYBR Green I fluorescence assay. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. Vitamin C was used as control. Of the extracts tested, the highest antiplasmodial activity was observed with Ethyl Acetate extract against the Chloroquinoresistant Pf INDO strain with IC50 of 16,05 ± 0,35 µg/ml then aqueous extract (16.85± 0,54 µg/ml) and methanol extract (18.93 ± 2.88 µg/ml). The same extract exhibited in vitro antioxidant property in FRAP, DPPH radical scavenging, NO radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating assays and can therefore prevent oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Fractions of Methanol Extract of Polyalthia longifolia var. Pendula Leaf

Banji Adaramola, Oluchi Otuneme, Adebayo Onigbinde, Kunle Orodele, Abimbola Aleshinloye, Jegede David, Ayodele Ogunnowo, Aderiike Adewumi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35002

This study was aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of various fractions of crude methanol extract of Polyalthia longifolia leaves. The various fractions were obtained by successive liquid-liquid partitioning of the crude methanol extract into n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The flavonoid and phenolic contents as well as the 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and total reducing power of the crude methanol extract of Polyalthia longifolia leaves and its fractions were analyzed using standard methods. From the results obtained, ethyl acetate fraction had the highest flavonoid (571.30 mgQE/g) and phenolic (278.45 mgGAE/g) contents and the lowest IC50 values for 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (˂ 1 µg/ml) and total reducing power (0.24 µg/ml). However, the water soluble fraction showed least values for flavonoid content (7.22 mgQE/g), phenolic content (48.66 mgGAE/g) and highest IC50 values for 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity (505.87 µg/ml) and total reducing power (47.99 µg/ml). The flavonoid content, phenolic content and total reducing power were in the order; ethyl acetate fraction > chloroform fraction > methanol extract > n-Hexane fraction > water soluble fraction. However, the inhibition of 2, 2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical followed the order; ethyl acetate fraction > methanol extract > chloroform fraction > n-Hexane fraction > water soluble fraction. In general, the antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was the most outstanding when compared with the crude methanol extract and other fractions. Having established the presence of significant concentrations of pharmaceutically important phytochemicals in the fractions of the methanol extract of the leaves especially the ethyl acetate, more evidence based studies such as analysis of specific chemical composition and in-vivo pharmacological potential of each fraction is imperative in order to expound more on the medicinal usability of the various fractions of the leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Anticoccidial and Antioxidant Activities of Psidium guajava Methanol Extract

Yamssi Cedric, Vincent Khan Payne, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Norbert Kodjio, Etung Kollins, Megwi Leonelle, Jules-Roger Kuiate, Mpoame Mbida

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36573

Background: Coccidioses are the major parasitic diseases in poultry and other domestic animals including the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo anticoccidial and antioxidant activities of Psidium guajava methanol extract.

Materials and Methods: A total of 48 domestic rabbits (60 days old and about 1.5-2 kg body weight) and free from coccidia infection were used. All groups except group 6 were infected with 1000 sporulated Eimeria intestinalis oocysts. Faecal samples were collected and examined starting on day one post-inoculation until Day 9 post-inoculation, during which oocysts appeared in faeces. For quantitative analysis or determination of the number of oocysts per gram (OPG) of faeces, the Mc Master technique was used.  Serum was used for determination of biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and Glutathione using standardized diagnostic kits and a spectrophotometer.

Results: The present study revealed that Psidium guajava has significant in vivo anticoccidial and antioxidant activities and can thus be used to protect tissue from oxidative stress. Oocyst counts in the group treated with 2% DMSO increased continuously from the initial count on Day 0 as opposed to treated groups. The highest oocyst count reduction rate was 95% in the group which received the standard anti-coccidial drug. Among the groups that received the plant extract, the highest oocyst reduction rate was 79.6% at a dose of 500 mg/kg and reduced in a dose-dependent manner to 66.1% (250 mg/kg) and then 56.2% (125 mg/kg). The result therefore showed a significant decrease in tissues and serum catalase and peroxidase, and a significant increase in NO, MDA and GLU levels in negative control animals. Treatment resulted in a significant normalization of the levels of the above markers when compared with the neutral control group.

Conclusion: These results therefore provide confirmation to the usage of Psidium guajava against coccidioses by Agropastoral farmers in Cameroon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular and Agro-Morphological Genetic Diversity Assessment of Gloriosa superba Mutants

Anandhi Selvarasu, Rajamani Kandhasamy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/37036

Glory lily (Gloriosa superba L.), a high value medicinal crop cultivated in Tamil Nadu for its valuable seeds and tubers. This crop belongs to the family Colchicaceae. The active principle Colchicine and Colchicoside present in seeds and tubers cures gout and rheumatism. The genetic variability also is low owing to the continued vegetative propagation through tubers. There is an urgent need to explore the possibilities for developing variability in this species with high seed yield and improved colchicine content through induced mutations. Mutation breeding was effected involving physical and chemical mutagens viz., gamma rays, Ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS) and Diethyl Sulphate (DES). On analysing the variance, significant differences were observed among the treatments for most of the traits. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was in general slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for the selected traits in VM2 generation indicating the influence of environmental factors on these traits. High heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for most of the characters under study indicating better scope for further selection. Differential patterns resulted in ISSR analysis indicating the polymorphism created by induced mutagenesis, creating scope for selection of desirable mutants in G. superba.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of SanQiTongShuan on Rats in Stroke Recovery Period

Chunhua Hao, Weiting Wang, Rui Zhang, Xianghua Zhang, Feng Guo, Zhuanyou Zhao, Lida Tang

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36805

Objective: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of Chinese Medicine SanQiTongShuan(SQTS) on rats in stroke recovery period.

Methods: The cerebral ischemia stroke recovery period model was successfully induced by FeCl3 after the fourth day and balance beam test≤4. A total of 70 rats were used in experiments. 60 model rats were divided into six groups (n=10). The model group was administered 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), the treated groups were administered SQTS (0.5, 1, 2 g /kg), and the positive control groups were administered Naodesheng (NDS, 1.24 g /kg) and Vinpocetine (VP, 1.55 mg/kg). In addition, the other 10 rats served as a sham group and were administered 0.5% CMC. Rats in the each group were treated each day last for 30 days orally with the volume of 10 ml/kg. The motor function of beam-walking test and forelimb muscle strength were performed before the occlusion and lasted for 10, 20 and 30 d after administration. The serum inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, ICAM-1 and VCAM were measured by assay kits. In addition, the optical microscopic examination of the serial sections of impact areas was performed.

Results: The ischemic rats displayed signs of brain damage on motor function, forelimb muscle strength and histopathology. SQTS (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g /kg) restored the beam-walking scores by 14.8% (P>0.05), 22.2%(P>0.05), 37%(P<0.05) after 20 d treatment and 24.0%(P>0.05), 48.0%(P<0.05), 40.0%(P<0.05) after 30 d treatment; increased the strength by 39.0%(P>0.05), 45.6%(P>0.05), 54.0%(P<0.05) after 20 d treatment and 40.3%(P>0.05), 43.7%(P<0.05), 54.5%(P<0.05) after 30 d treatment. On the other hand, the histological changes were less severe and the inflammatory factors IL-6, TNFα, VCAM were decreased at the different degree, with respect to the model group.

Conclusion: We proposed that SQTS, a promising Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Prescription, can be used as a therapeutic agent for stroke recovery period via alleviating inflammatory responses.