Open Access Case study

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Induced by a Medicinal Plant: Ziziphus mucronata

Boubacar Ahy Diatta, Moussa Diallo, Suzanne Oumou Niang, Maodo Ndiaye, Saer Diadie, Ndeye Bougoul Seck, Mame Thierno Dieng

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36333

Introduction: The fruits of the jujube tree of the genus Ziziphus, which are mostly edible, are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain infectious, urinary and metabolic diseases.

Some studies have reported hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria and angioedema following the consumption of jujube fruits. We report a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by Ziziphus mucronata.

Case Report: A 17-year-old girl was hospitalized for a necrotic bullous rash to more than 80% of body surface with a mucosal involvement. These symptoms appeared 18 days after taking the powdered fruit of the jujube tree Ziziphus mucronata to treat enuresis. She did not take any modern medication three months before being admitted to the hospital. Healing of cutaneous and mucosal lesions was obtained after stopping the plant and symptomatic treatment.

Conclusion: Plant of the genus Ziziphus contains chemical compounds (alkaloid, tannins, flavonoids, terpene derivatives), which are known for being toxic and allergic to the skin. Their mechanisms of action may be pharmacological linked to overdosage or due to immunological reactions responsible for toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Medicinal Plants: Allamanda cathartica and Mimusops elengi

Md. Abdul Mannan, Md. Shamsul Alam, Farhana Mustari, Md. Kudrat-E-Zahan, Roushown Ali, A. B. M. Hamidul Haque, Shahed Zaman, Debashish Talukder

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35730

A comparison of in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of two medicinal plants, Allamanda cathartica and Mimusops elengi have been studied by spectrophotometric and disk diffusion methods in this research. It was observed that different leaf extract of A. cathartica exhibited less antioxidant activity in comparison to that of the extract of M. elengi. The highest antioxidant activity (4.588±0.001 mg/mL) was found in the dia-ion resin adsorbed fraction of M. elengi and the least activity (1.82±0.002 mg/mL) was found in the methanolic fraction of A. cathartica. From the results of antimicrobial activity test, it was observed that the petroleum ether fraction of A. cathartica showed the maximum inhibition with the diameter of 16–20 mm while the ethyl acetate fraction of M. elengi showed the least inhibition with the diameter of 10–16 mm. The insecticidal activity against the pathogenic bacteria Tribolium castaneum of A. cathartica was very pronounced with the LD50 values of 225.205 mg/cm2 where as M. elengi showed the least and/or no insecticidal activity. All the extracts such as methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and dia-ion-resin adsorbed fraction of both A. cathartica and M. elengi displayed higher level of toxicity towards brine shrimps lethality bioassay. Based on the results obtained, the A. cathartica and M. elengi leaf extracts could serve as the potential source of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents. Also they could be used for the treatments of different oxidative disorders, infection diseases caused by the resistant microorganisms and cancer cells, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Potentials of Methanol Extract and Chloroform Fraction of Drymaria cordata on MSG-induced Uterine Hyperplasia in Female Wistar Rats

A. O. Olowofolahan, O. O. Aina, E. T. Hassan, O. O. Olorunsogo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/36335

Aim: Uterine fibromyomas are non-cancerous or benign growth of the uterus. They are sensitive to changes in levels of oestrogen and progesterone which affect the size of the fibroid. It has been well established that glutamate, a naturally occurring amino acid induces uterine fibroid in rat by increasing the levels of estradiol. Drymaria cordata is used traditionally for the shrinkage and destruction of uterine fibroid. The biochemical basis of this effect is unknown.

Methodology: The effect of the crude Methanol Extract (MEDC) and Chloroform Fraction (CFDC) of the methanol extract of Drymaria cordata on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-induced hyperplasia in female wistar rats were investigated. Thirty six mature virgin female rats were randomly divided into six study groups; A(Control), B(MEDC (200 mg/kgbdwt)), C(CFDC (100 mg/kgbdwt)), D(MSG (200 mg/kgbdwt)), E (MSG + MEDC) and F( MSG + CFDC). The administration was carried out as a single daily dose by oral galvage for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hrs after the final exposure. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture into EDTA-sterilized sample bottles. Total estradiol (estrogen), progesterone and cholesterol were determined according to standard procedures. The uteruses were harvested and subjected to histological examination.

Results: The results showed that co administration of both MEDC and CFDC reversed MSG-induced uterine hyperplasia observed in the myometrium of the uteruses of the animals with CFDC having higher effect. In addition, the increase in levels of total progesterone, cholesterol and estrogen in the MSG-treated animals were ameliorated by both MEDC and CFDC.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that MEDC and CFDC have the ability to prevent and reverse the development of fibroids. This shows that certain bioactive components present in the extract and fraction may prove useful in the treatment of uterine fibromyomas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Rubia tinctorum’s Extract against CCl4 Induced Hepatic Injury in Rats

Fatimazahra Marhoume, Younes Zaid, Hicham Boufous, Nadia Errafiy, Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Jawad Laadraoui, Abde lmalek Hakmaoui, Abdellah Bagri, Abderahmane Chait

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35441

This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of Rubia tinctorum’s extract against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Twenty four rats were divided into four groups. Group I received normal saline (10 ml/kg) and group II (normal control) was treated with vehicle (olive oil 1 ml/kg), Group III (CCl4 control) received 1 ml/kg CCl4 mixed with equal volume of olive oil and Group IV (test group) received simultaneously the extract (1 g/kg) + CCl4 for 15 days. At the end of the experiment (2 weeks), blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. The present study revealed that CCl4 significantly increased (P<0.001) hepatic markers (ASAT, ALAT, GGT, ALP and direct bilirubin) activities, but these effects were decreased by the treatment of rats with Rubia tinctorum’s extract. Histopathologically, the potential hepatoprotective (the hepatoprotective potential of the plant) activity of the plant was also revealed by its regenerative action on CCl4 induced liver tissues injury.

This finding indicates that Rubia tinctorum L has a potent hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage and improved the biochemical and histopathological results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Potential of the Ethanol Leaf Extract of Triclisia macrophylla and Its Fractions

Chinweizu Ejikeme Udobi, Ubulom Peace Mayen Edwin, Akpanenang Edet Effiong

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35452

Different plant extracts are used in Africa by the population as treatment for malaria. The antiplasmodial effect of the ethanol extract and fractions of Triclisia macrophylla was thus evaluated using Swiss albino mice 15-25 g. The mice were challenged with different doses of the extract and its n-hexane and butanol fractions in separate curative and suppressive tests. Results showed that the extracts exhibited significant (p˂0.001) antiplasmodial activity which was in a dose dependent manner. They also showed 28% of chemosuppression and 23.4% and 20.2% for the n-hexane and butanol fractions and 20.2% for the 1500mg/kg/day dose of the extract. The mean survival time of the animal groups treated with the extracts were also significant (p˂0.001) relative to the control. The LD50 test result confirmed that the plant is relatively safe as the animals that were given a high dose of 5000 mg/kg survived while initial phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, terpenes and alkaloids. The trado-medicinal use of this plant for the treatment of malaria is justified and its potential for further exploration in antimalarial therapy is acknowledged.