Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity of Anchomanes difformis, An Antimalarial Herb in Murine Models

J. O. Olanlokun, C. O. Babarinde, O. O. Olorunsogo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35165

Aim: Anchomanes difformis (A. difformis) is commonly used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of malaria. However, there had been no scientific evidence to substantiate this folkloric claim in murine models; hence the study.

Study Design: We employed murine models for this in vivo experiment and Vacuum Liquid Chromatography as our separation techniques for the plant extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratories for Biomembrane Research and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences and Institute of Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria between June 2014 and August, 2015.

Methodology: Methanol Extract (ME) and methanol Fraction (MF) obtained from A. difformis were used to treat mice for curative and prophylactic experiments. Therapeutic doses (methanol extract therapy [MET] and methanol fraction therapy [MFT] 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered daily for seven days after confirming parasitemia. Prophylactic groups (methanol extract prophylaxis [MEP] and methanol fraction prophylaxis [MFP]) were pretreated for seven days before experimental infection.  

Results: Observed slides showed that there was no significant suppression, reduction in parasitemia or increase in clearance compared with the positive control. There was a significant reduction in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in the curative experiment compared with the unparasitized control (UTA). The PCV did not change significantly across the groups in the prophylactic experiment. White Blood Cell (WBC) values decreased significantly (p<0.0001) among the treated groups for MET and MFT compared with Artesunate (ART).  The ART’s WBC value increased significantly (p<0.0001) when compared with parasitized control (MCT). In the prophylactic group, WBC values decreased significantly with both MEP and MFP compared with the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) group. In both curative and prophylactic groups, survival rate decreased significantly as the dose increased. While ME-treated group survived better than MF-treated group, no animal survived under the MFP 400 mg/ kg bw. Histopathology of the liver revealed toxic effects of all drugs used.

Conclusion: The results revealed that doses used did not have significant antiplasmodial activity compared with the control drug used in this research. Extra caution must be taken while taking antimalarial drugs because of their possible toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Free Radicals Scavenging Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Napoleona imperialis

O. E. Etim, F. M. Awah, U. E. Bassey, E. I. Akpakpan, M. N. Udo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33139

Aims: Napoleona imperialis is a wild plant commonly found in Southeastern part of Nigeria used mostly for the treatment of wounds. The methanolic leaves extract of Napoleona imperialis was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites and its ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (O2.) and nitric oxide radical (NO.) was studied.

Methodology: The leaves of N. imperialis was air dried, pulverized and macerated in 80% methanol. Aliquots of the concentrated crude extract was used for qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening. DPPH, superoxide (O2-) anion and nitric oxide radical scavenging capacity of varying concentrations of the extract was evaluated and compared with standard antioxidants; ascorbic acid, quercetin and tocopherol.

Results: The result showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, steroids, alkaloids and resins. Quantitative screening showed a high content of flavonoids and anthocyanins. DPPH radical scavenging potential of the extract was observed to be maximum at concentration of 1000 μg/ml similar to the effect of ascorbate. The extract also had a low superoxide (O2-) anion radical scavenging ability with IC50 of 20.23 μg/mL compared to quercetin (IC50 = 35.81 μg/mL). The NO. scavenging capacity was concentration dependent with 500 µg/ml of the extracts scavenging most efficiently compared to α-tocopherol.

Conclusion: The leaves of N. imperialis has been observed to be rich in phytochemicals and have strong free radical scavenging potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diabetic Effect of Anthocleista vogelii Ethanolic Root Extract and Fractions in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Albino Rats

Rita Maneju Sunday, Olugbenga Ayodeji Ayannuga, Joseph A. Ibeh, Lucky Abdul Ajige, Olusegun Julius Oyedele, Bartholomew Okechukwu Ibeh, Efere Martins Obuotor, Olapade Rufus Ilesanmi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35483

Aims: To investigate the anti-diabetic effect of Anthocleista vogelii root ethanolic extract (EE) and fractions (ethyl acetate [EF], dichloromethane [DF] and n-hexane [HF] fractions) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic albino rats.

Study Design: The antidiabetic effect of A. vogelii root extracts was investigated in Albino rats by measuring some biochemical parameters including fasting blood glucose levels and also by examining the histology of the pancreas, liver and kidney.

Place and Duration of Study: Medicinal Plants Section, Bioresources Development Centre, Ogbomoso and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and April, 2015.

Methodology: The control group was administered 10 ml/kg distilled water, the standard drug group was administered 5 mg/kg glibenclamide, the test groups were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg ethanolic extract and 200 mg/kg of each of the fractions (EF, DF and HF) orally to STZ-induced (60 mg/kg; interperitoneal) diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL), biochemical parameters, changes in body weight, food intake, water intake and the histology of the pancreas, liver and kidney of diabetic rats were examined.

Results: The result of the study showed that EF exerted a more significant (P<0.05) reduction in FBGL more than the other fractions when compared with the control. The EE and fractions significantly (P<0.05) decreased food intake, water intake, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine concentrations and increased high density lipoprotein levels of diabetic treated rats when compared with the control. The extracts also caused the regeneration of cells of the pancreas, kidney and liver of diabetic treated rats.

Conclusion: The study concluded that A. vogelii ethanolic root extract and fractions exerted potent anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipideamic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats and thus, the plant may be used for the treatment and management of diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Systematic Analysis of Prunus Species with a Focus on Management Plan of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: An Autochthon Plant of Africa

Maninder Karan, Ashish Kumar Jena, Neetika Sharma, Karan Vasisht

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35897

Aims: To provide complete data on the alike and differentiating characters of the bark of six species of Prunus i.e. P. amygdalus Stokes, P. armeniaca L., P. cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, P. domestica L. and P. persica  (L.) Batsch vis-a-vis P. africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman of family Rosaceae, with an aim of encouraging the use of more species of Prunus against men’s problems and be a part of the management plan of Pygeum.

Place and Duration of Study: The research work has been carried out in University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India between September 2011 and October 2016.

Methods: Systematic evaluation of the similarity and differences based on the morphological evaluation; anatomical and microscopical description; physico-chemical analysis; total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and sterols content; chemical profiling through TLC and HPLC suitably corroborated by chemometric analysis; together with efficacy against oxidative stress and inflammation, the important factors involved in disease progression of BPH.

Results: The plants under study showed many comparable features related to morphology, anatomy, microscopy, total content of various active constituents and significant biological activity. The chemical similarity between the species was supported by chemometric analysis of their HPLC fingerprint profile. The remarkable membrane stabilising activity in controlling inflammation and protective effect against oxidative stress corroborated their usefulness in BPH.

Conclusions: The study shall be of interest to people across the globe with diverse backgrounds for making correct identification and suitable selection of the Prunus species. It will not only enhance the therapeutic value of more species of Prunus, but will directly or indirectly contribute in the preservation of an autochthon plant P. africana from the dangers of getting extinct.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Tithonia diversifolia against Some Microorganisms

B. A. Oso, T. A. Ogunnusi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/28568

Aims: To determine the antibacterial activities of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Tithonia diversifolia on clinical isolates.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Afe Babalola University and the plants were collected from the campus. The isolates used were collected from Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ekiti state.

Methodology: Methanolic extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Tithonia diversifolia leaves were obtained by cold extraction method. The activity of the extracts were tested on Staphylococcus aureus from skin, Staphylococcus aureus from infection of the respiratory tract (RTI), Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi using agar well diffusion technique on Mueller Hinton Agar.

Results: For Euphorbia heterophylla, the extract had greatest activity on Salmonella typhi. The diameter of the zone of inhibition at 100 mg/ml was 25.00 mm and 17.00 mm at 30 mg/ml. The least activities were recorded for Streptococcus pnuemoniae and Escherichia coli. The extract did not show activity against Staphylococcus aureus (RTI). The Minimum lethal Concentration (MLC) was between 80 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. For Staphylococcus aureus (skin), Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (RTI) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it was 80 mg/ml. For Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli, it was 100 mg/ml. The methanolic extract of Tithonia diversifolia showed greatest activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The diameter of zone of inhibition was 30.00 mm at 100 mg/ml and 15.00 mm at 30 mg/ml. The least activity was recorded for Klebsiella pnuemoniae. The zone of inhibition was 20.00 mm at 100 mg/ml and 13.00 mm at 30 mg/ml. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 80 mg/ml. It was 100 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus (skin) and Staphylococcus aureus (RTI).

Conclusion: Extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla and Tithonia diversifolia showed activities on some microorganisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. This is in agreement with the use of these plants in folkore medicine in the treatment of typhoid fever, wounds and boils.