Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-microbial Activities of Selected Ghanaian Medicinal Plants and Four Structurally Similar Anti-protozoan Compounds against Susceptible and Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria

A. N. Antwi, K. B. A. Owusu, M. Amoa-Bosompem, N. B. Williams, F. Ayertey, L. Akyeh, J. Agyapong, T. Tetteh, G. I. Djameh, S. K. Botchie, F. Azerigyik, A. Ablordey, N. H. Tung, A. A. Appiah, S. Iwanaga, Y. Shoyama, N. Ohta, B. Egyir, M. Ohashi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35437

Antibacterial resistance is one of the fast rising health concerns globally. WHO emphasized the need for development of new drugs to combat antimicrobial resistance. Our group previously found several anti-protozoan compounds: ML-2-3, Molucidin and ML-F52 from a Ghanaian medicinal plant Morinda lucida and oregonin from a Japanese medicinal plant Alnus japonica, which share a similar aromatic ring structure. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activities of our compounds and some selected Ghanaian medicinal plants` extracts (n= 92)  against five (5) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 33495), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022), Proteus mirabilis (ATTC 35659)), two (2) Gram-positive bacteria, (Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213)) and 28 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from carriage and clinical infection in Ghana, in an in vitro colorimetric based assay. IC50, Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with ampicillin and ciprofloxacin as reference antibiotics. Oregonin had activity against both Gram-positives and negatives, while the remaining three compounds had activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. 12 out of 92 plant extracts tested showed significant activity against the standard bacteria strains. Oregonin was the most active compound against all 28 isolates of MRSA with a least MIC of 100 µM and a least MBC of 400 µM; 19 isolates had IC50 < 100 µM.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Ferulago angulata on Liver Function Parameters and Antioxidant Status in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Seyedeh-Fatemeh Mousavi-Ezmareh, Mohammad Mazani, Esfandiar Heidarian, Reza Alipanah Moghadam, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei, Garshasp Mardanian, Lotfollah Rezagholizadeh, Ali Shamsazar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35134

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Ferulago angulata Extract (FAE) in experimental diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods: 54 adult male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups (n=9). Diabetes was induced in all animals except those in group 1 by the daily intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate for 3 consecutive days. Experimental diabetic rats in groups 3-5 were orally administered with FAE (200,400, and 800 mg/kg/day, respectively). Group 6 was treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin. At the end of week 4, the rats were anesthetized and then sacrificed by cardiac puncture. Then, the levels of liver markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzymes capacity were evaluated in each group.

Results: Treatment with FAE resulted in a significant reduction in aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities as well as in the serum and liver tissue contents of MDA in comparison to the diabetic control group (P<0.001). The FAE-treated diabetic rats showed a significant increase in catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activities of the liver (P-values were dose-dependent). Furthermore, the extract has an ameliorative effect on the histopathological changes of the liver in alloxan induced diabetes.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that FAE can reduce the complications of diabetes, prevent oxidative stress, and improve antioxidant status in diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Activities of the Aqueous Root Bark and Flower Extracts of Terminalia catappa on Streptozotocin - Induced Diabetes in Male Wister Rats

Comfort Japhet Philip, Luka D. Carrol, Ishaya Y. Longdet, Aguiyi J. Chinyere

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34702

Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with the increase in Blood glucose level caused by the abnormalities of glucose receptors in the uptake of glucose or total destruction of the β pancreatic cell, with approximately 366 millions of people worldwide diagnosed with the disease in 2011. The aim of this study is to determine the antidiabetic activities of the aqueous Root bark and Flower extracts of Terminalia catappa on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The experiment consist of 25 male albino wister rats weighting about 250 – 300 g/bw divided into five groups of five rats each. Diabetic was induced by a single intraperitorial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The aqueous Root bark and Flower extracts of Terminalia catappa (200 mg/kg) were administered orally for      14 days, after which the blood glucose, Albumin, Total protein, electrolytes, antioxidants, haematological parameters were investigated. The results shows that diabetic control group have a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of glucose and bilirubin while a significant (p<0.05) decrease in body weight, albumin, total protein, electrolytes, haematological parameters and antioxidants when compared to normal control group. Oral administration of 200 mg/kg of aqueous Root bark and Flower extracts of Terminalia catappa for 14days to group C and D diabetes rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) decrease in blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, serum liver marker enzyme, kidney markers and bilirubin while a significant (p<0.05) increase in albumin, total protein, electrolyte, some haematological parameters and antioxidants. Results of the study indicates that aqueous Root bark and Flower extracts of Terminalia catappa possesses hypoglycemic and protective effects against ROS caused by streptozotocin induced diabetics rats. In Conclusion, the aqueous Root bark and Flower extracts of Terminalia catappa can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus at the said dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ashwagandha and Its Active Ingredient, Withanolide A, Increase Activation of the Phosphatidylinositol 3’ Kinase/Akt Cascade in Hippocampal Neurons

Dahae Hwang, Isabel Vasquez, Leticia Galvez, Huong Do, Anthony Lopez de Santa Ana, Shane Matta, Feimeng Zhou, Michael Chen, Amelia Russo-Neustadt

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35355

Aims: To determine if whether, in a hippocampal neuron culture model subjected to nutrient deprivation stress (simulating degenerative disease state), Ashwagandha and/or two of its putative active ingredients, withanolide A or withaferin A, affect any of the following: neurite outgrowth, neuronal survival, activation of the pro-survival PI-3K/Akt and MAPK cascades, phosphorylation of CREB and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Study Design: To primary rat embryonic hippocampal neurons in culture, half of which were subjected to nutrient deprivation stress, inhibitors of the PI-3K/Akt and MAPK cascade (LY294002 and PD98059, respectively) were applied, followed by Ashwagandha, withanolide A or withaferin A.

Methodology: Neuronal survival was determined by using fluorescently labeled markers for live vs dead cells and by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Average neurite length was measured under phase-contrast microscopy. And intracellular signal transduction activity was determined by Western blotting.

Results: Ashwagandha increased average neurite length. Ashwagandha, withanolide A and withaferin A all increased neuron survival in nutrient deprived conditions. Ashwagandha and withanolide A increased phosphorylation of Akt, but not MAPK, in both nutrient-adequate and nutrient-deprived conditions. Withaferin A increased BDNF expression under nutrient-deprived conditions, but decreased BDNF expression under adequate nutrient conditions; withaferin A still activated Akt under both types of nutrient conditions.

Conclusion: Using our model of nutrient deprivation stress, we showed that withaferin A helps cells adapt to stressful conditions, such as by increasing expression of BDNF, while withanolide A, continues to maintain cell survival and neural protection by increasing baseline levels of PI-3K/Akt. Our results are in agreement with extant literature on the effects of Ashwagandha or withaferin A on disease, such as cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Analysis of the Bletillae Rhizoma and Its Common Adulterants Using Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Molecular Barcoding

Ye Lu, Shaohuan Liu, Baoling Ju, Jin Wang

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35791

Aim: This study was designed to discriminate Bletillae Rhizoma from its common adulterants: Iris tectorum, Polygonatum odoratum and Polygonatum cyrtonema using molecular barcoding.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Pharmaceutical science, Soochow University, China, between February, 2015 and December, 2015.

Methods: Total genomic DNA was isolated from the leaves of Bletilla striata and similar species. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced after PCR amplification. A neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was constructed from the ITS2 sequences, using the software MEGA 6.0.

Results: The lengths of the ITS2 sequences of Bletilla striata, Iris tectorum and Polygonatum odoratum were 259 bp, 268 bp and 227 bp, respectively. The secondary structure of the ITS2 from Bletilla striata was obviously different in terms of the number, size and angle. The samples were clustered into three classes, and the NJ tree and systematic classification of the plants were consistent.

Conclusion: ITS2 could be used to identify the Bletillae Rhizoma and adulterants rapidly, and promote standardized planting.