Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Carica papaya on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Albino Mice

Ishaya Y. Longdet, Emmanuel A. Adoga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34698

Aim: The work was designed to investigate the antmalarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya on Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain infection in vivo.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and National Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja, Nigeria, between August and October 2016.

Materials and Method: Twenty five mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei strain and shared into 5 equal groups. Group 1 mice were infected and administered only normal saline (negative control). Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated, after infection, with 100, 200 and 400 mg extract/kg body weight of mouse respectively while group 5 was treated with 5 mg chloroquine /kg body weight. The phytochemical constituents of the plant extract were evaluated.

Result: The extract produced a dose dependent decrease in the level of parasitaemia when compared to the negative control group. Also, at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, the extract produced increase in body weight and PCV of the infected mice as compared to mice in the negative control group. Phytochemical screening showed that the leaf extract contains alkaloids, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, saponins cardiac glycosides and steroids.

Conclusion: the methanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya presented a good effect on Plasmodium infection in mice and so could serve as a possible source of antimalarial compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effect of Nigella sativa on Alcohol-induced Liver Disease in Rats

A. Mosbah, H. Zettal, H. Khither, C. Mosbah, N. Kacem Chaouche, M. Benboubetra

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34661

Background: Alcohol-induced fatty liver disease is the earliest liver disorder associated with excessive consumption of alcohol. Various treatment regimens have been proposed for the treatment of alcohol-induced liver disorders including the use of medicinal plants such as Nigella sativa (NS), a miracle plant with a wide spectrum of activities.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic property of NS total oil (TO) and neutral lipid fraction (NLF) on alcohol-induced liver injury in male albino rats. Methodology: The TO was first extracted from NS seed, and then fractionated using a chromatography column to obtain the NLF. These two extracts were used separately as treatment regimen for alcohol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Some serum biochemical markers of hepatic function including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and histopathological features of the liver section were assessed, and results were compared to those in the control group.

Results: Serum liver enzyme activities increased significantly (p<.05) in the ethanol-treated group compared with the control group. However, treatment with TO or NLF of NS seed caused a significant reduction in serum levels of liver enzymes (AST, ALP, ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose compare to the corresponding levels in the ethanol treated group. There were also improvement in histo-pathological features in the TO and NLF treated groups compared with alcohol-treated group.

Conclusion: Both extracts of NS seeds possess ameliorative potential against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effect of Stem of Anthocleista djalonensis

Oyinlade C. Ogundare, S. M. Akoro, Abiodun O. Ogunfowora, Adekunle Oladunni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33803

Aim: To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of stem of A. djalonensis.

Study Design: The study assessed the antiradical potential of the stem bark of A. djalonensis and determined the cytotoxic effect of the plant extracts using Allium cepa root growth inhibition and Brine Shrimp lethality assays.

Methodology: The stem bark of A. djalonensis was extracted in cold solvents using hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The free radical scavenging activity of the plants extracts was determined using DPPH scavenging assay. The extracts cytotoxicity was studied by means of Allium cepa root growth inhibition and then Brine Shrimp lethality assays using vincristine sulphate as the standard drug.

Results: The ethanol extract of A. djalonensis showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (14.24 ± 2.80 µg/ mL) while the remaining extracts of the plant exhibited varying free radical scavenging activities (14.24 to 29.91 µg/ mL). The extracts restrained the growth of A. cepa after 72 hr of the study at p< 0.01. Similarly, the extracts showed varying cytotoxic effect against newly hatched brine shrimps. The ethanol extract had the highest cytotoxic value (IC50) of 296.68 µg/ mL while hexane extract had the lowest (422.80 µg/ mL).

Conclusion: The extracts of stem of A. djalonensis are potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents and may be relevant in the management of free radical provoking diseases such as cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recipes and Treatments in Traditional Herbal Medicine to the Kaamba Community of Madingou, Congo

Victor Kimpouni, Josérald Chaîph Mamboueni, Marie-Yvette Lenga-Sacadura, Elie Nsika Mikoko

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35096

Aims: Studying the recipes in popular use of medicinal plants by Kaamba community settled in savannah and their analyses.

Study Design: It highlights the socio-cultural basis of this society through phytotherapeutic data.

Place and Duration of Study: The ethnobotanical study was carried out in Madingou (in the South Congo) within the Kaamba community. Data obtained from direct interviews conducted in August and September 2015 in Madingou.

Methodology: For each health problem cited, the plant name, the used parts, the modes of preparation and administration of recipes were recorded. The plants were identified in the herbarium (IEC), Brazzaville. The relative importance of the plants was established based on the number of citations and events occurred in the recipes. There are 32 informants, including 22 women, age range being 15 to 70 years, delivered their knowledge unconditionally.

Results: This survey concerns 80 vascular plants harvested in the savannah, along the rods, and around the houses. The analysis shows that 70 medicinal recipes in simple and complex. These potions cover 43 diseases and symptoms corresponding to 11 spheres of diseases and organs. The decoction (44.4%) is the dominant and de facto pharmaceutical form (65.3%). The most cited diseases have a prevalence ranging from 31.3 to 68.8% and are related to childhood.

Conclusion: Therapeutic knowledge is very immense in primary health care, but this potential is eroded by several factors, such as the anarchic urbanization of the environment favouring the depletion of taxa by the destruction of habitats and the rural exodus responsible for the exile of young people in search of a better well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modulation of Cytochrome C Release and Opening of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore by Calliandra portoricensis (Benth) Root Bark Methanol Extract

T. Olubukola Oyebode, O. Tolulope Adebusuyi, S. Emmanuel Akintimehin, O. Olufunso Olorunsogo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/35211

Aim: Evasion of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a common feature of most cancer cells. This study evaluated the modulatory effects of different fractions of crude methanol extract of the root bark of Calliandra portoricensis, a medicinal plant used in the traditional treatment of prostate tumour on cytochrome C release via opening of the mitochondrial Permeability Transition (mPT) pore in rat liver.

Methodology: Opening of the pore, mitochondrial ATPase activity, cytochrome C release and extent of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation were assessed and monitored spectrophotometrically in vitro.

Results: In the presence and absence of calcium, Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) Ethylacetate fraction (EFCP) had no effect at all concentrations tested. Varying concentrations (10-120 µg/mL) of VLC methanol fraction (MFCP) significantly induced pore opening in the absence of calcium by 2.7,3.9,9.7, 11.2, 12.5, 14.5 and 15.1 folds while spermine reversed this inductive effect.  In the presence of calcium, the pore was slightly further opened by MFCP. Furthermore, these fractions enhanced mitochondrial ATPase activity and diminished the extent of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner with significant effect in MFCP. Similarly, cytochrome C release in MFCP was significant when compared to other fractions.  

Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that bioactive agents that possess the potential of interfering with mitochondrial bioenergetics and inducing opening of the pore are present in the most potent methanol fraction of C. portoricensis, this would find use in disease conditions where apoptosis needs to be upregulated.