Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Molluscicidal Activity of Croton microstachyus and Cissus quadrangularis against Biomphalaria and Bulinus Species of Snails

Eyob Y. Garoy, Tsegezeab Goje, Dawit Mebrahtu, Atul Kaushik, Robel Asfaha, Amanuel Andemariam, Dawit Brhane, Ermias Efream, Kiros Teweldebrhan, Zere Araya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33560

Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the molluscicidal activities of different solvent extracts of two Eritrean local plants, Croton macrostachyus and Cissus quadrangularis identified using ethno-botanical, pharmacological information and also traditional use gathered from traditional healers.

Methods: Various solvent extract concentrations of leaves of Croton macrostachyus and Cissus quadrangularis leaves and seeds were tested for their molluscicidal activity against adult Biomphalaria species, the intermediate host of S. mansoni and Bulinus species, the intermediate host of S. haematobium and S. intercalates. The LC50 and LC90 were determined at 24 hours of exposure. Comparison of molluscicidal activity of the different solvent extracts within and among the plants was also done. The effect of the increase in exposure time (36 and 48 hrs) on molluscicidal activity of the plants with respect to each solvent extract was then assessed.

Results and Discussion: Screening test results indicated that a significant molluscicidal activity ranging from 15.558 ppm to 289.689 ppm was found. Comparison of the solvent extracts also revealed that a significant difference was shown in all the three plant materials, with p-value less than 0.05. Half (50%) of the plant extracts were found to have a significant difference in their molluscicidal activity upon increase in exposure time (p<0.05). In general, comparison of the plant material extracts showed that Croton marostachyus seed has the highest molluscicidal activity.

Conculision: From the observations, it is concluded that plants, Croton macrostachyus leaf, seed and Cissus quadrangularis leaf were found to have molluscicidal effect against Bulinus species and Biomphalaria species of snails. Crude extracts of these plants caused death of the snails at varying concentrations. The best results in terms of toxicity to the intermediate host snail were exhibited by Croton macrostachyus seed, followed by Croton macrostachyus leaf. Prolonging the time of exposure was also found to increase the killing ability on half of the plant extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiplasmodial Potential and Phytochemical Screening of Ten Plants Used as Antimalarial in Mali

Mamadou Wele, Laura Kirkman, Nouhoum Diarra, Yaya Goita, Moriba Doumbia, Kassim Traore, Drissa Diallo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34523

Aim: This study was designed to determine in vitro antiplasmodial activities of extracts from ten Malian medicinal plants against P. falciparum strains.

Place and Duration of Study: Collection of plant materials and basic phytochemical screening were done in Bamako, Mali and antiplasmodial activity assessment at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States of America between September 2013 and February 2014.

Methods: We collected leaves from ten commonly used medicinal plants and prepared ethanol and aqueous extracts. Antiplasmodial activities were evaluated against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 P. falciparum and chloroquine-resistant Dd2 P. falciparum strains, using the fluorescence-based SYBR® green I method. The interactions involving the differential extracts were further analyzed using a variable potency ratio drug combination approach. Chemical screening allowed us to identify the major secondary metabolites from those extract that were active against the parasite.

Results: Plant extracts showed a range of antiplasmodial activity. The ethanol extracts of Annona senegalensis, Bauhinia thonningii, Maytenus senegalensis, and Fluenggea virosa showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against 3D7 P. falciparum (17.81±3.43≤IC50 ≤ 37.64±0.83 µg/mL) and against Dd2 P. falciparum strains (19.58±3.43≤ IC50 ≤ 67.55±.1.76 µg/mL). Among aqueous extracts only extract from Bauhinia thonningii demonstrated moderate antiplasmodial activity against both strains. The results showed that the active extracts contained a group of alcaloids, flavonoids, sterols, saponosides, tannins, coumarins and triterpenoids

Conclusion: Bauhinia thonningii, Maytenus senegalensis, Annona senegalensis and Fluenggea virosa possess antiplasmodial activity. These data confirm their use in traditional malaria therapy in Mali and provide evidence for further study for antimalarial drug discovery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effects of Camellia sinensis and Achillea millefolium on Several Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria

Azam Aliasghari, Saeed Ahmadi Majd, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Firoozeh Khosravi, Dariush Shokri, Abdelnasser Mohammadi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33395

Background and Objectives: Infectious diseases are among the most known important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. The ongoing explosion antibiotic-resistant bacteria and side effects of medications, application of assistive methods including the use of medicinal plants for treatment have become particularly important.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the ethanol extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and yarrow flower (Achillea millefolium) were prepared by maceration method and its antibacterial effect on four clinical strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated with microtiter plate method for determining the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration).

Results: The MICs of green tea extract for Acinetobacter baumannii was 15.6 mg/ml and 31.25 mg/ml for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The MIC of Achillea millefolium extract for Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli was 125 mg/ml and against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 250 mg/ml.

Conclusion: Considering the antimicrobial effects of green tea and Achillea on four strains of resistant bacteria, the extract of this plant can be used in control and treatment of infections caused by these infectious agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antitrypanosomal Activity of Allium porrum Ethyl Acetate Bulb Extract in Trypanosoma brucei brucei Experimentally Infected Wister Albino Rats

S. Odeyemi Omonike, A. Umar Yahaya, M. S. Abdulsalami

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34418

Aims: The present study investigated the antitrypanosomal activity of crude ethyl acetate bulb extracts of A. porrum plant against T. b. brucei.

Methodology: Twenty five male albino rats were divided into five groups and infected with x106/ml of T. b. brucei. Group 1 was infected and untreated while groups 2-4 were infected and treated with single intraperitoneal injection 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg of ethyl acetate extract of A. porrum while a single dose 3.5 mg/kg diaminazene aceturate was administered to group 5 when parasitaemia was established at x106 day 5 post infection.

Results: Clinical manifestations of trypanosomoses such as increased rectal temperature, weakness and dullness were observed in experimental rats in all the groups. There was decrease packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell count (RBC) in group 1-4 which was not significant (p>0.05) while group 5 had a significant increase (p<0.05) in PCV and non-significant increase (p>0.05) in RBC post treatment. There were feeble changes in the pre-treatment and post-treatment parasitemia level in the groups treated with ethyl acetate extract of A. porrum while there was significant clearance in parasitemia in the control group.

Conclusion: Interperitoneal injection of ethyl acetate extracts of A. porrum at the dose and concentration used in this study, has trypanosomal reduction activity in wister rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnomedicinal Information and Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea in Lagos State, Nigeria

O. J. Sharaibi, O. S. Osuntogun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/26815

Aim: To identify and screen the phytochemicals of medicinal plants with anti-diarrhea potential in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

Place and Duration of the Study: Ethnobotanical survey and phytochemical screenings of plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea in Nigeria were carried out between April and November, 2014.

Methodology: Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhea in Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out using oral interviews (without questionnaire) method to gather information from herb sellers in major herbal markets in Lagos State. The qualitative phytochemical screenings of the identified medicinal plants was carried out using standard screening procedures.

Results: Twenty-five plant species belonging to 16 families were identified. The families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Combretaceae have the highest number of plant species followed by the family Fabaceae. Aristolochia albida, Parinari curatellifolia, Acanthospermum hispidum, Phyllantus amarus and Gongronema latifolium were the most frequently mentioned and highly recommended of all the species. The plant parts used for the treatment are the leaves, bark and roots which were prepared by infusion, decoction or taken in powdered form. Majority of the plants are taken orally. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, anthraquinones and phlobatannins.