Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnomedicinal Survey of Plants Used for the Management of Hypertension Sold in the Makola Market, Accra, Ghana

Emelia Oppong Bekoe, Irene Akwo Kretchy, Joseph Adusei Sarkodie, Akosua Okraku, Clement Sasu, Degraft Adjei, Mary Twumasi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32342

Hypertension is a highly prevalent public health problem among Africans, including Ghanaians, and it is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and coronary artery disease. Hypertension occurs at a rate of 19% to 48% across Ghana; and because about 70% of the patients are believed to be using herbs to manage this condition, it is important to know the kind of plants that are used in the management of this condition. The aim of this study was therefore to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey to document medicinal plant species which are sold on the open Ghanaian market; and are traditionally used in the treatment of hypertension. Validated questionnaires were administered to sellers of dried or semi-processed herbs at the Makola market, in the Accra Metropolitan Area. The survey identified the plant materials and the way and manner; by which these plant materials are prepared and administered.

A total of 13 plant species belonging to 13 plant families were identified. The following medicinal plants were found to be commonly sold for the treatment of hypertension: Bambusa vulgaris (Graminaeae), Bridellia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae), Carica papaya (Caricaceae),  Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae), Persea americana (Lauraceae), Proporis africana (Leguminosae – Mimosoideae), Pseudocedrela kotschyii (Maliaceae), Theobroma cacao (Sterculiaceae) and Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae). Leaves and roots of these plants predominated other plant parts. Most of these herbs were prepared as aqueous decoctions before administration. In conclusion, there are many medicinal plant species used to treat several conditions, including hypertension, within the Ghanaian community. This study therefore underscores the need to preserve, document and scientifically investigate traditional herbs used for the treatment of various diseases of public health importance, and to optimize their use since they serve as alternative treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Toxicity Study and Antifilarial Activity of Four Plants from Nord-Cameroon

Ndjonka Dieudonné, Ayouba Mouraba, Ahamat Abakar, Djafsia Boursou, Ndouwe Tissebe Menga Honore

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33290

Aims: The objective of this work was to seek an alternative drug against onchocerciasis based on medicinal plants.

Study Design: Ethanolic extracts of stem barks, leaves and roots of Detarium microcarpum, Guiera senegalensis, Trichilia emetica and Vitellaria paradoxa were evaluated in vitro against the cattle filarial parasite Onchocerca ochengi, a model organism similar to Onchocerca volvulus.

Place and Duration of Study: The work took place at the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development of Ngaoundere between October 2014 and February 2015.

Methodology: Adult worms were incubated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with antibiotics, and different concentrations of the extracts of the four plants. Mortality was registered after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 37ºC. Ivermectin and M9-DMSO were the positive and negative controls respectively.

Results: All parts of plants showed anthelmintic activities after 72 h of incubation. The Means of LC50 values were determined graphically and varied from 5 to 60 µg/mL after 72 h incubation. The most antifilarial activities were obtained from stem barks and leaves of D. microcarpum with LC50 of 5 and 7.9 μg/mL on adult worms respectively, while the least antifilarial activity was obtained from stem barks of V. paradoxa with LC50 of 60 µg/mL. These results show that at low concentrations, leaves and stem barks of D. microcarpum are effective in killing O. ochengi worms. Additionally, in vivo toxicity tests using mice showed that the four plants are not toxic.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study support the use of these plants against nematode infections by traditional healers and pastoralists in Cameroon and could represent an alternative anthelminthic for onchocerciasis treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Commonly Used Surinamese Medicinal Plants for Their Potential Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects Using Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

D. R. A. Mans, I. Magali, J. Pawirodihardjo, L. J. D. Tjoe, R. Bipat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34373

Aim: There are often no records about the potential toxicities of medicinal plants including their possible adverse maternal and perinatal effects. In this study, a number of commonly used plant-derived traditional preparations was assessed for their potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in a cell culture model.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out for fifteen months at the Departments of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, Anton de Kom University, Paramaribo, Suriname.

Methodology: Parts from Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Azaradichta indica, Carica papaya, Cocos nucifera, Dioscorea villosa, Eryngium foetidum, Gossypium barbadense, Momordica charantia, Musa x paradisiaca, Senna reticulata, and Spondias mombin were extracted with distilled water, freeze-dried, and stored at -20°C. The samples were evaluated in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells for their cytotoxicity using the sulforhodamine B assay, and for their capacity to cause DNA damage using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The latter studies were validated by establishing the DNA damage caused by etoposide and mitomycin C, respectively. Results were related to data with untreated cell samples.

Results: The extracts from A. vera, G. barbadense, M. charantia, M. paradisiaca, and S. mombin inhibited cell growth at IC50 values of roughly 100 to 400 µg/mL, whereas the remaining samples were barely cytotoxic (IC50 values > 1,000 µg/mL). However, only the extracts from G. barbadense and M. paradisiaca caused appreciable DNA damage in the comet assay (40 and 30%, respectively), and only the former preparation caused the formation of micronuclei (12 ± 5 per 1,000 cells).

Conclusion: The G. barbadense extract had caused both repairable and unrepaired, more permanent DNA damage and that from M. paradisiaca early, still repairable, more moderate DNA damage. Nevertheless, both preparations may cause genetic toxicity and should be used with caution, particularly by pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Renal Protective Properties of Aqueous Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Leaf against Petrol Vapour – Induced Toxicity on Male Albino Rats

Friday O. Uhegbu, Caleb J. Nwaogwugwu, Chibuzo H. Onwuegbuchulam, Chinwe Edith Oriaku, Okechukwu C. Atasie, Kelechi U. Akatobi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33358

The aim of this study was to investigate the renal protective properties of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum from Nigeria against petrol vapour – induced toxicity on the kidney of male albino rats. Fifty apparently healthy male albino rats aged 8 weeks and weighing between 165 g –185 g were randomly divided into five groups of ten animals each. Group 1 served as control and were not treated with the plant extract or exposed to gasoline vapour. Group 2 served as negative control and were exposed to the gasoline vapour but not treated with the plant extract. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were treated with the plant extract at 20 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, 60 mg/kg body weight respectively and exposed to the gasoline vapour for 5 hrs daily for 21 days. Results show that mean body weight of treated animals increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) compared to negative control. Haematological parameters; PCV, Hb, Total bilirubin, WBC and RBC increased, while renal function biomarkers Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- also increased in the treated animals compared to the negative control respectively. The effect of the plant extract is dose dependent. The results show that the plants extract has renal protective potential on the experimental animals. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Antifungal and Antibacterial Effect of Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Zanthoxylum macrophylum Used in Traditional Medicine in Yamboro (Central African Republic)

E. Kosh-Komba, L. Aba Toumnou, I. Zinga, I. Touckia, P. U. Nembara Zin Wogbia Lembo, G. Mukeina, S. Semballa, O. D. Yongo, J. L. Syssa-Magale

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33304

The knowledge of traditional medicine has always guided the search for new cures. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Zanthoxylum macrophylum, (Rutaceae) are used as medicinal plants in Central African Republic for bacteria and fungi treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of water-alcohol extract of leave, bark and root of Z. zanthoxyloides and Z. macrophylum and the phytochemistry group of some secondary metabolic.  

The results of analysis of variance on the antibacterial and antifungal effect of extracts of leaves of Z. zanthoxyloides and Z. macrophylum with high concentration (4 mg/disc) showed the effect of treatment was a very highly significant variation according to the plant, bacteria and fungi               (P < 0.001). Extract of leaves of Z. zanthoxyloides is very effective on Klebsiella pneumonae with high concentration (4 mg/disc). Extract of leaves of Z. macrophylum is very effective on Candida albicans with high concentration (4 mg/disc). Extract of bark of Z. zanthoxyloides is very effective on Candida albicans with high concentration (4 mg/disc). Extract of root of Z. zanthoxyloides is very effective on C. albicans with high concentration (4 mg/disc).

Preliminary phytochemical screening reactions of the crude extracts of leaves, bark and root of Z. zanthoxyloides and Z. macrophylum showed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponines and flavonoids.