Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Rutin Content in Some Egyptian Plants: A Validated RP-HPLC-DAD Approach

Nada M. Mostafa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33760

Aims: To quantify the bioflavonoid rutin in three Egyptian plant families extracts in a comparative study and to prove the accuracy, precision, linearity and reproducibility of the used method.   

Study Design: Development of RP-HPLC-DAD method. Rutin analysis in 29 plant extracts. Method validation using different parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The study was performed in 11 months.

Methodology: A method was developed using reversed phased-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD) and rutin as an analytical marker. Twenty-nine extracts from different Egyptian plants belonging to three families (Lythraceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae) were investigated for their rutin content. The method was then validated for accuracy, repeatability, precision, detection, quantification limits, linearity, and range parameters.

Results: The content of rutin (mg g-1 extract) was highest in Punica granatum bark (158.29), followed by Melissa officinalis leaves (133.09), Lagerstroemia tomentosa flowers (120.16) and leaves (118.17). The lowest rutin content (4.4 mg g-1 extract) was found in Lagerstroemia speciosa bark. The calibration regression equation was y = 7390x + 15.81 showing a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9995, with best linearity in the range of 0.01-0.1 mg mL-1. The detection and quantification limit values were 0.0031 and 0.0093 mg mL-1, respectively, confirming the quantification method sensitivity. A recovery value of 100.17% indicates the best method accuracy.

Conclusion: The applied method was simple, precise, accurate, and proved successful for rutin determinations in different extracts for the first time in the selected plants, declaring regional variation in the phytoconstituents content of the Egyptian chemotypes and proved that Lythraceae plants were the richest in rutin, with Punica granatum bark extract showing the highest values. The method can be applied for the plants routine quality control analyses and the traces analysis of rutin in complex samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Isolated Protein Mixtures from Seeds of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Momordica charantia

Yash Sharma, Jaanvi Kaushik, Kumud Bala

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/34006

Aim:  The purpose of study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of primary metabolites such as proteins present in the seeds of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Momordica charantia.

Structure Design: In this work, we have used Protein precipitation method to isolate the protein of seeds of medicinal plants as well as the enzymatic and nonenzymatic biochemical assays has been determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was done in Helix BioGenesis Pvt. Ltd., Noida, India, between December 2016 and April 2017.

Methodology: Proteins were isolated by proteins extraction buffer and purified by acetone precipitation method. Separations of proteins were done by SDS PAGE and by using molecular ladder of 250KDa have revealed molecular weight of the proteins of seeds of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Momordica charantia. Antioxidant activity was determined by quantifying the enzymatic biochemical assays i.e. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), Catalase activity (CAT) & Glutathione s transferase activity (GST) and nonenzymatic biochemical assay i.e. Lipid peroxidation (MDA Content).

Results: It was observed that CAT activity found to be maximum in the 2.268mg/ml of concentration of proteins of seeds of Ocimum sanctum, i.e. 26.06±0.04 µmoles of H2O2 oxidized consumed/min/ mg of proteins and GST activity found to be 19.93±0.10 µmole of CDNB-GSH conjugate formed/ min/ mg of proteins. As far as the nonenzymatic biochemical assay is concerned, lipid peroxidation i.e. MDA content was found to be high i.e. 1.14 µ gram of malondialdehyde formed/ mg of proteins in the seeds of Momordica charantia at the 1.664mg/ml of concentration.

Conclusion: This can be concluded from the above studies that proteins of seeds of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Momordica charantia have shown antioxidant activity through various test like SOD, CAT, GST and MDA content therefore we suggest that these isolated protein mixture can be utilized as neuroprotective agent against neurological disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity and Anti-microbial Activity of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberacae)

Amani M. D. El-Mesallamy, Sahar A. M. Hussein, Gehan N. A. Gad, Mohamed H. Abd-Elazem, Eman M. M. Ebrahem

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33171

Aim: The current study evaluates the cytotoxic Activity of aqueous methanolic extract from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against five human cancer cell lines (lung carcinoma cell line) (A549-1), Caco-2 (Colon carcinoma cell line), HepG2 (liver carcinoma cell line), Hep2-2 (larynx carcinoma cell line) ,PC3 (Prostate carcinoma cell line),using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay method and study its antimicrobial activities against two species of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), two fungal species (Aspergillus and Fusarium) and one (Candida albicans) as yeast species, identification of the phenolics and flavonoids  content by using HPLC.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt and pharmacology animal health researcher institute, provincial Lab. Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt. During the period between December 2015 and December 2016.

Methodology: The cytotoxic activity was assessed using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Antimicrobial activity was tested by the paper disc diffusion technique. Paper chromatography and HPLC analysis were used to prove the presence of the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

Results: The methanolic extract of ginger gave cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines the most potent cytotoxic activity which causes the death of 50% of the tumor cells With IC50 19.1 µg/ml is lung (A549-1), followed by Colon (Caco-2) with IC50 21.7 µg/ml, liver (HepG2) with IC50 22.5 µg/ml , larynx (Hep2-2) with IC50 is 29.0  µg/ml , Prostate (PC3) IC50 is 30.2 µg/ml, with SRB assay, and antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the inhibition zone (in mm) activity against two species of pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with (31.7), Pseudomonas auroginosa with (25.3), and three species of fungi Fusarium with (29.3) followed by Candida albicans with (28.3) then Aspergillus sp. with (25.3). HPLC analysis identify major phenolic compounds; vanillic, ellagic, pyrogallol, salicylic, caffeic and ferulic while the major flavonoid compounds were luteolin-6-arabinose-8-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside-2''-p-coumaroyl, apigenin-6-rhamnosyl-8-glucoside, naringin , hesperidin and acacetin as well.

Conclusion: The results in this work demonstrate that the extract of the selected medicinal plant (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) contains considerable amount of beneficial bioactive phenolic and flavonoid compounds which let the plant used as good candidate for novel therapeutic strategies due to its significant anticancer and antimicrobial activities. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Contraceptive and Phytochemical Profile of Lime-Yellow Pea (Macrotyloma axillare, E. Mey) Verdc: A Tropical Climber

Rechab S. Odhiambo, Patrick G. Kareru, Erastus K. Mwangi, Daniel W. Onyango

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33957

Background: Rising human population has detrimental effects on quality of life and lead to increased cases of pollution and poverty. Modern forms of contraceptives also have severe side effects and result in high cases of unwanted pregnancies. As a result, several cases of illegal abortion, leading to serious health complications have been reported, and more than 30 million US dollars are used to treat post-abortion complications in Kenya annually. Herbal contraceptives offer alternatives to health problems, and this study was novel with significant findings, since little information exists about the pharmacological properties of M. axillare, unlike its closely related species, M. uniflorum, which has been extensively studied and established to have great pharmacological potential.

Aims: To establish and validate the use of M. axillare extracts as traditional contraceptives and also to profile the phytochemicals responsible for its contraceptive activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.

Methodology: The contraceptive effects were investigated by in vivo studies using Virgin Wistar female rats (Rattus norvegicus) with regular oestrus cycle. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical profiling was carried out using standard procedures while GC-MS analysis was employed in the identification of compounds present in the methanolic extracts.

Results: Macroscopic and microscopic examination of female reproductive tract revealed reduced ovary size, involuted uterus and persistent corpus luteum in the ovary and no births were recorded in groups treated with higher doses of the plant extracts. The presence of saponins, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids, as well as phenolic compounds like tannins and flavonoids, which could be responsible for the contraceptive activity observed, either acting independently or synergistically, was confirmed through qualitative phytochemical analysis. GC-MS profile also led to the identification of compounds that included sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, stigmastan-3,5-diene and campesterol that have structural similarities to known reproductive hormones and conventional contraceptives and could, therefore, be responsible for the observed contraceptive activity of the plant extract.

Conclusion: The tested methanolic extracts have a potential contraceptive activity that warrants further investigations towards the development of novel plant-based contraceptives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-ulcerogenic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Unripe Fruit of Musa sapientum Linn in Combination with Vitamin C on Ulcer Induced Models in Experimental Rats

Moke Emuesiri Goodies, Omorodion Lisa Iziegbe, Akpoguma Hitler Augustine, Imere Precious, Ahante Ejiroghene

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/29161

Aims: To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of unripe fruit of Musa sapientum Linn in combination with Vitamin C on aspirin and ethanol induced ulcer models in Wistar rats.

Study Design: Anti-ulcer study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, between February and April, 2016.

Methodology: Forty-five rats divided into 9 groups of five were used for each model. Doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg of Musa sapientum (MS) alone and in combination with Vitamin C 100 mg/kg (1:1) were administered to the animals, Vitamin C 100 mg/kg was administered to another group, while the control group received distilled water. Omeprazole 20 mg/kg was given to a different group. The animals were sacrified and stomach was removed for examination.

Results: The aqueous extract of unripe fruit of Musa sapientum Linn showed significant (P<0.05) decrease in ulcer in both models, which was further enhanced by Vitamin C addition.

Conclusion: This study concludes that Vitamin C potentiates the anti-ulcerogenic effect of unripe fruits of Musa sapientum in rats.