Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Studies of Different Fractions of Galega officinalis Extract and Their Effects on Some Biochemical Parameters in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

C. D. Luka, G. I. Adoga, G. Istifanus

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32145

Galega officinalis Linn (Goat’s rue) is popularly called sakpani in Hausa speaking part of Nigeria. The Plant belongs to the family Leguminoseae. G. officinalis is chiefly used as an antidiabetic plant because of its ability to reduce blood sugar levels. The plant has positive effect on breast-milk production. Aqueous, methanolic, ethanolic and acetone extracts of the plant Galega officinalis Linn (Leguminoseae) and fractionations of the methanolic extracts were carried out in stages using standard procedures. Alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids from the methanolic extracts of G. officinalis at 400 mg/kg body weight significantly (p<0.05) reduced the plasma glucose concentration in diabetic treated rats at the 3rd and 28th day of treatment when compared to diabetic untreated rats with alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids producing 81.61%, 27.20% and 21.76% decreases in glucose concentrations. Also alkaloids from the methanolic extracts of G. officinalis improved lipid profile and reverse the adverse effects of induced diabetic on selected marker enzymes. Methanolic fractions F1, F2, F3 and F6 produced remarkable effect by decreasing glucose concentration in diabetic treated rats compared to diabetic untreated rats. Methanolic extract of G. officinalis proved to be a rich source of phytochemicals with potent hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histochemical Studies of the Efficacy of an Anti-Ulcer Herbal Mixture on the Gastrointestinal Tract of Albino Rats

O. A. Adediran, O. G. Avwioro, D. E. Ibikunle, A. G. Funsho-Agun

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33218

Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and toxic effect of an anti-ulcer herbal mixture.

Method: Quantitative phytochemical analysis was carried out on the ethanol extract of the herbal mixture. The control group in the acute toxicity study received 2 ml of distilled water; other doses were 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, 4 g/kg, 6 g/kg and 8 g/kg per body weight for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed 1hour after oral administration of 1 ml absolute ethanol and Gastrointestinal Tract taken for histological assessment. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by administering 2 ml of distilled water to control group of albino rats, omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) and 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the anti-ulcer herbal mixture to the test groups for 14 days and ulcers were induced in the rats by oral administration of 1 ml absolute ethanol.

Results: secondary metabolites like flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and anti-oxidant like phytic acid and oxalate were quantitatively present. There was no death up to an acute maximum dose of 8 g/kg of the herbal mixture. The Pre-treatment groups of animals both in gross examination and histopathological assessment exhibited significant protection from ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury comparable with omeprazole group.

Conclusion: the study has shown that the extract from the herbal mixture could significantly protect the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced ulcer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exposition of Role of Diurnal and Seasonal Variation on Latex of Calotropis procera Ait. and Calotropis gigantea L.R.BR.

Anagha Ranade, Rabinarayan Acharya, Vinay Shukla, Sudipta Roy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33239

Background: Time (Kala) of collection is an important criterion responsible for the quality of crude drugs of herbal origin. According to their parts used, the guidelines for rutuwise (seasonal) collection of crude plant drugs has been well documented in various treatise of Ayurveda. Among various parts used of medicinal plants, Kshira (latex) of Arka and Shwetarka finds a wide usage in various pharmaceutical processes and formulations in classical literature. The latex has been quoted to be procured in Sharada rutu (September- October) but the scientific reason behind this still remains unexplored.

Materials and Methods: The fresh crude latex of both C. gigantean (CG) and C. procera (CP) were collected in clean glass vials regularly in all the six rutu i.e Vasanta (March-April), Grishma (May-June), Varsha (July- August), Sharada (September- October), Hemanta (November- December) and Shishira (January- February). The collection was done for 4 days in each rutu and 3 times in a day i.e. before sunrise (BS), 3 hrs. after sunrise (3AS) and 6 hrs. after sunrise (6AS) from three different tender and fresh parts of the plant i.e. twig, petiole and peduncle. The observations regarding volume, girth of plant parts, pH, viscosity, specific gravity along with preliminary phytochemical analysis of latex was carried out in samples of crude latex collected in six seasons.

Results: Grishma rutu was very well differentiated from other rutus in terms of volume and girth. Also, a peculiar presence of alkaloids and proteins was observed in Sharada rutu in both the species supports the classical collection protocol in Agneya period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Methanol Extract of Trichilia emetica (Meliaceae) Stem and Root Bark against Free Radical-induced Oxidative Haemolysis

Kouitcheu Mabeku Laure Brigitte, Tchouangueu Thibau Flaurant, Talla Emmanuel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33343

Background: The objectives of this study are to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiradical properties of methanol extract of the stem and root bark of Trichilia emetica on a model of free radical-induced membrane damage.

Methodology: p-Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride colorometric assay was used to determined bacterial and yeast susceptibility to plant samples. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide scavenging and reducing power assays. The cellular oxidative stress was evaluated through haematolysis and haematoprotective assays.

Results: The stem bark extract revealed a great antibacterial activity against 62.5% of bacteria strains tested with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 32 to 64 µg/ml. The IC50 value the stem and root bark extracts were 9.68 ± 0.75 and 10.05 ± 0.86 μg/ml, 9.98 ± 0.52 and 200.49 ± 3.40 μg/ml, 45.92 ± 2.45 and 4081 ± 212 μg/ml, respectively for DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and reducing ability assays. Both extracts exhibited concentration dependent haemolysis of sheep red blood cells (RBCs). Stem and root bark extracts (25 µg/ml) diminish respectively by 95.9 and 85.68% hydrogen peroxide-mediated cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: Our data reveals that antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Trichilia emetica stem bark were better than that of root bark.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of the Root Bark Extracts of Hippocratea africana (Willd.) Loes. ex Engl.

A. D. Folawewo, A. N. Madu, F. V. Agbaje-Daniels, A. O. Faboyede, A. R. Coker

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32765

The root of Hippocratea africana (Celastraceae) is used in ethnomedicine in South-Western Nigeria to treat infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed at identifying the compound(s) that are responsible for the antimicrobial activities of the roots and also to contribute to the chemistry of the plant species. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane and methanol root bark extracts of Hippocratea africana was carried out. These extracts were subjected to screening of preliminary phytochemical test, which showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, phlobatanins and diterpenes. The crude methanol extract exhibited the largest zone of inhibition (16 mm in diameter with 700 mg/mL extract) against Morganella morganii and the largest zone of inhibition of the n-hexane crude extract (8 mm in diameter with 700 mg/mL) against E. coli. The methanol extract was subjected to column chromatography. Four isolates (A, B C & D) were obtained. Isolates C exhibited largest zone of inhibition (21 mm in diameter at 15 mg/mL) against Escherichia coli while isolate D exhibited the lowest zone of inhibition (3.7 mm in diameter at 15 mg/mL) against Klebsiella neumoniae.