Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Growth Regulators on Direct Shoot Formation from Leaf Explant and Antioxidant Activity of in situ and in vitro Plants of Cadaba fruticosa - An Endemic Medicinal Plant

Y. Sharmila Juliet, K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai, Rajendiran Krishnasamy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32507

The present study aimed to develop an efficient simple and reproducible in vitro propagation technique for an multipurpose endangered medicinal plant Cadaba fruticosa (L.) Druce. Multiple shoot formation was observed from the surface sterilized leaf segments of mature plant through direct regeneration on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 13.32 µM benzyl amino purine (BAP), 1.16 µM kinetin (KIN) and 1.35 µM α naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with NAA (2.68 µM) with 95% response. The plantlets were successfully hardened in the decomposed coir waste and compost combination with 85% survival rate. Antioxidant activity of the in situ leaf and in vitro plants through DPPH and FRAP assay confirmed the similarity.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Salacia lehmbachii Ethanol Root Bark Extract

Godwin Christian Akuodor, Grace Akanimo Essiet, Augustine Dick Essien, Francis Vincent Udoh, Donald Emeka Ogiji, Solomon Kingsley Nwadum, Emmanuel Micheal Nworie

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32014

Aim: This work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of S. lehmbachii ethanol root bark extract.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, University of Calabar, Nigeria, between June, 2013 and October, 2015.

Methods: Antioxidant activity of the root extract was evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrayl) radical, Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays.

Results: A significant inhibition at different concentration of the extract was observed with DPPH radical, nitric oxides and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities when compared with ascorbic acid.

Conclusion:  The results of the study show that the ethanol root bark extract of S. lehmbachii may serve as a good scavenger of free radicals, hence reduces the effects of oxidative stress in the body and could be explored as a therapeutic agent in free radical induced diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Ethnic Vegetables Consumed by the Indigenous People Living in Chittagong Hill Tracts

Parveen Begum, Md Abdullah Al Noman, Mohiminul Adib, Monira Ahsan, Sheikh Nazrul Islam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32059

Aim: Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the treatment of infectious diseases much difficult. Plant or herbal antibiotics have been reported to be effective against multiple drug resistant bacteria. In line of exploring newer antibacterial agent(s), this study describes the screening of ten selected ethnic vegetables for their antibacterial activities against fourteen bacterial strains.

Methodology: Fresh plant sample was extracted using aqueous and ethanol solvent by cold-extraction. Disc diffusion method was employed to screen the antibacterial activity of fresh and ethanol extracts of ethnic vegetables consumed by the ethnic people of Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Results: Among the tested plant extracts, fresh extracts of Kamino (Caesalpinia digyna Rottler) leaves, Chikipung (Rumex vesicarius L) and Ammpata (Mangifera indica L); and ethanol extracts of Kamino leaves showed potent antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than the gram negative strains. Fresh extract of Kamino leaves showed a strong antibacterial activity against of the bacteria tested (20 mm to 32 mm zone of inhibition). Highest antibacterial activity was observed against Sercina lutea (32 mm zone of inhibition). Against Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae type-1, Kamino leaves indicated 24 and 21 mm zone of inhibition respectively. Ethanol extract of Kamino leaves showed mild activity (10 mm to 15 mm zone of inhibition) against the tested strains.

Conclusion: Samples of ethnic vegetables investigated in this study are found to possess antibacterial activity. Fresh extract of some samples, in comparison with their ethanol extract has shown higher antibacterial activity. These findings indicate the possibility of further research on these  plant to find effective antimicrobial compounds from these plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethanol Extract of Moringa oleifera (Lam) Leaves on Nicotine-induced Changes in Haematological Parameters in Male Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

O. Bamidele, E. O. Otabor, D. S. Arokoyo, L. D. Babatunde, G. S. Adeleye, A. O. Ayoka

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/33046

Aim: This research was conducted to determine the potential role of Moringa oleifera leaves extract in attenuating the toxic effects that may be caused by nicotine on haematological parameters in rat.

Study Design: Experimental animal study of ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera on nicotine-induced changes in haematological parameters.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical and Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria. Between October 2014 to June 2015.

Methodology: Thirty adult male wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of 5 each. Group A served as the normal control. Group B served as the nicotine control and the rats were injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with nicotine (3 mg/kg bw). Group C rats were pre-treated with the moringa extract (150 mg/kg bw), and then later given i.p nicotine (3 mg/kg bw). Group D rats received i.p. nicotine (3 mg/kg bw) and the moringa extract (150 mg/kg body weight) concurrently. Group E rats received i.p. nicotine (3 mg/kg bw) and were then post-treated with the moringa extract (150 mg/kg bw). Group F rats received only the moringa extract (150 mg/kg bw).

Results: The results revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) the RBC, PCV, Hb, MCV and MCH of the group that was pre-treated with the moringa extract and the group that was administered solely with the extract. In the groups treated with nicotine, the PCV, RBC, Hb, MCV and MCH were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when compared with the untreated control group. The group that received concurrent administration of nicotine and moringa extract had significantly lower (p < 0.05) red blood cell count when compared to both the untreated and nicotine control groups. In the group treated with nicotine, followed by post-treatment with the moringa extract there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the RBC, PCV, Hb and other red cell indices when compared to the nicotine control group, following the administration of the extract. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the leukocyte levels was observed in all treated groups. There was however a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the platelet level of all treated groups except the group that received concurrent administration of moringa extract and nicotine, which showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05)  instead, when compared with the untreated control group.         

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that Moringa oleifera leaves have positive haematological effect and that post-treatment with moringa is protective against nicotine induced changes in haematological parameters.

Open Access Review Article

Ethnoveterinary Values of Nigerian Medicinal Plants: An Overview

Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-35
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/29321

Background: Poor animal health is still a major problem limiting livestock production in sub-saharan Africa. Poverty and toxic effects of veterinary drugs have compelled poor resourced farmers to search for alternative medicine in Nigeria. In view of this literature search was carried out with a view to compiling medicinal plants that are being used in the treatment of livestock diseases in Nigeria.

Methods: The study was carried out in Markurdi Nigeria. Literatures from various journals that are addreesing ethnoveterinary medicine and ethnoboatany were critically reviewed in order to identify the reported traditional medicinal plants used in treating animal diseases.

Results: More than 200 plants were used in the treatment of animal diseases such as foot - and - mouth disease, mange, tuberculosis, pediculosis, etc. Some of these plants were: Acacia nilotica, Gardenia erubescens, Vernonia amygdalina, Azadirachta indica among others. Some of the searched plants were given to animals either directly or ground into powder and added to animal feeds. Others were administered to animals as concoctions, infusions, or decoctions. The responsible therapeutic phytochemicals were mainly alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, minerals and vitamins. Some medicinal plants were given either in combination with sodium chloride or potash. Before use, plants that had toxic or antinutritional compounds, such as oxalates, tannins, saponins, phytates, alkaloids, nitrate/nitrite and others were subjected to soaking, boiling, toasting or fermentation to remove the toxic elements.

Conclusions: The identification of these plants can complement or supplement the available modern veterinary drugs with a view to providing animal protein for 70% malnourished Nigerian populace. The identified plants may also be included in modern veterinary pharmacopoeia. More so, phytochemical principles present in the plants can be fractionated, isolated and tested for acclaimed biological activities.