Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Crude Extract of Swertia chirata and Its Fractions

Mehjabeen ., Asma Wazir, Noor Jahan, Muhammad Khan, Asif Bin Rehman, Mansoor Ahmad

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31958

Aim: The aim of present study is to evaluate the pharmacognostic, phytochemical and some biological studies on Swertia chirata.

Methodology: Microscopic evaluation, fluorescence analysis, TLC, FTIR and HPLC techniques used for standardization of Powder and crude extract of S. chirata. Biological studies were performed in vitro through haemagglutination on all positive and negative blood groups at the dose of 5 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml, 0.625 mg/ml and 0.3125 mg/ml and brine shrimp bioassay at the doses of 1000, 100 and 10 µg/ml.

Results: Microscopic examination of powder of S. chirata showed important diagnostic features of the plant. The reactions with chemical reagents showed positive results for the presence of triterpenes, tannin, alkaloids, carbohydrate and sterols while the tests for saponins and protein were negative indicated the absence of these components. The fluorescence analysis of powder of S. chirata was observed under ordinary light and UV light at 254 nm and 366 nm. TLC, FTIR and HPLC analysis indicated the presence of active constituents in crude extract. The results of haemagglutination activity showed that the drug has highest response (agglutination activity) against B+ and O+ blood groups that is 80% at the concentration of 5 mg/ml. The cytotoxicity test showed no lethality.

Conclusion: Phytochemical evaluation provides standardization knowledge of S. chirata. Due to presence of triterpenes and alkaloids. S. chirata may be used for therapeutic purposes. Haemagglutination and cytotoxic results indicated the safety profile of S. chirata.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Synergistic Potentials of Platostoma africanum and Psidium guajava against Some Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria

Chinenye C. Chimezie, Peter M. Eze, Angus N. Oli, Chika C. Abba, Felix A. Onyegbule, Charles O. Esimone

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32235

Objective: Multiple drug resistant bacteria (MDR) are a global concern. This study investigates the possible broad-spectrum and synergistic antibacterial activities of ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Platostoma africanum combinations on multi-drug resistant isolates.

Methods: The study used three (3) strains of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, one non-ESBL-producing E. coli (control), 2 strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and one non-MRSA (control).The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts were determined against the test isolates using the agar dilution method. Assessment of synergism of the plant combinations against the test isolates was done by the checkerboard method. Their fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) indices were calculated and used to indicate synergism against the test organisms.

Results: P. guajava showed broad antibacterial activity against both groups of resistant organisms. P. africanum showed poor antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative organisms compared to the Gram-positive strains. Determination of bactericidal activity of the extracts on the test isolates showed that the killing ability of the plants was time dependent. Most combination ratios of the plant extracts showed synergism against ESBL-producing E. coli strains and additivity against MRSA. The 8:2 (P. guajava: P. africanum) combination showed synergism against all the test isolates, with FIC indices ranging from 0.106 to 0.825.

Conclusions: P. guajava and P. africanum (8:2) combination has synergistic and broad spectrum antibacterial activity against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and MRSA. The possibility of using the combination for disinfection is foreseeable. Characterization of the active principles from these plants is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sodium Azide (NaN3) on Growth of Phyllanthus odontadenius M2 and Evaluation of in vitro Antiplasmodial Activity by Elisa HRP2

Rufin Kikakedimau Nakweti, Véronique Sinou, Sébastien Luyindula Ndiku, François Sabot, Claudine Franche

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/30181

Aims: “This work was to increase the production of secondary metabolites of P. odontadenius M2 using sodium azide (SA) in order to amplify those with in vitro antimalarial activity using Plasmodium falciparum strain K1”.

Study Design: Laboratory experiment tests; Immersion of seeds in SA concentrations; In situ culturing seeds, Harvesting plants M1; seeds M2 collected; Sowing of M2 seeds in to fields; Extraction of P. odontadenius aerial parts; Phytochemical screening, In vitro antiplasmodial testes to determine the inhibition of concentrations killing 50% of Plasmodium falciparum strain K1.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology and Molecular Biology; General Atomic Energy Commission, Regional Center of Nuclear Studies, P. O. Box.: 868 Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The in vitro antiplasmodial activities conducted at the Faculty of Pharmacy, UMR-MD3, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. The experiments were conducted firstly during August and December 2011; secondarily during May and September 2012 until July 2014.

Methodology: Seeds M2 from of Phyllanthus odontadenius M1 plants were obtained after oven drying at 45°C and they were immersed in SA at concentrations ranging between 0 to 20 mM. They sow in two fields (M2.1 and M2.2) and plants harvested after four months. In addition, some parameters such as height, collar diameter, number of branches and biomass from second generation (M2) were analysed. Phytochemical screening was released. The in vitro antiplasmodial activities assays on Plasmodium falciparum strain K1 was determined by ELISA HRP2.

Results: Results obtained showed that SA generally reduced the growth parameters such as heigth and colar diameter that reduce directly fresh biomass with the lowest reduction being -11.42% (10 mM SA) and the higher -22.37% (17.5 mM SA). Alkaloids were absents in the all samples. Tannins were present only in the extracts treated with 10 mM SA and anthocyanins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenoids were observed in all samples. For the in vitro antimalarial activities, better activities were observed for M2 extracts obtained from plants treated with 7.5 mM (3.26±0.05 µg/ml and 4.87±1.57 µg/ml) and 10 mM (4.52±0.12 µg/ml and 2.73±1.67 µg/ml) SA.

Conclusion: In conclusion, SA has, in general, negative effects on growth parameters of               P. odontadenius and enhances the in vitro antimalarial activity of P. odontadeius extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biologically-guided Isolation of Acaricidal Phytosterols: An in vitro Study against Rhipicephalus (B.) annulatus Ticks Infesting Cattle in Egypt

Abeer Moawad, Rabab Mohammed, Waleed Arafa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32702

Aim: To find new and effective natural products to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus infesting cattle in Egypt through biologically-guided study.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant extraction and phytochemical study: Department of Pharmacognosy (2014-2016), Adult and larval immersion tests: Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016).

Methodology: Acaricidal activity was evaluated using adult and larval immersion tests of the total alcohol extract of Mesembryanthemum forsskaolii Hochst. Ex. Boiss herb in addition to successive solvent extracts of different polarities (n-hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), and methanol (MeOH). Acaricidal activities were measured by mean number of ticks died and antiparasitic efficacy (%) relative to the negative control. After specifying the most active fraction, chromatographic isolation of the secondary metabolites of the active n-hexane fraction was performed using silica gel columns and SephadexLH-20. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was done by extensive 1D/2D NMR study and mass spectroscopy. Re-evaulation of the acaricidal activity of the major isolated compounds was performed to determine the active natural products.

Results: At 10% concentration; n-hexane, CHCl3 and the total alcohol extracts showed 100.00±0.00%, 100.00±0.00% and 86.66±11.15% adulticidal activity respectively compared to 80±10.00% of the acaricide chemical deltamethrin, and 100.00±0.00%, 93.33±2.88% and 96.66±2.88% larvicidal activity respectively compared to 95.00±0.00% of deltamethrin. Only n-hexane fraction retained its 100.00±0.00% mortality when its concentration was reduced to 5%. The polar methanol fraction of M. forsskaolii didn't show any degree of adulticidal or larvicidal activity against the tested tick species. Phytochemical investigation of the n-hexane extract led to the isolation of tricontanol (1), β-amyrin (2), β-sitosterol (3), Sitost-5-ene-3β,7α-diol (4) and β-sitosterol-3-O-glucosid (5). The isolated compounds are being reported for the first time from M. forsskaolii. The major compounds isolated from the most active fraction (n-hexane fraction) were retested for their acaricidal activity. In a concentration of 25 mg/ml; β-sitosterol showed 86.6±5.57% and 91.6±2.88% adulticidal and larvicidal activity respectively while β-sitosterol-3-O-glucosid recorded 76.66±5.57% and 98.33±2.88% respectively.

Conclusion: The n-hexane extract of M. forsskaolii, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-o-glucoside may be potentially used as natural alternatives in the control of R. annulatus   infesting cattle in Egypt. Further studies including field efficacy, persistence and stability need to be done to provide a pharmaceutical preparation for tick control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Herbal Dietary Supplement White Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) on Sprague-Dawley Rats Performance

Hae-Jeong Kim, Sangshetty Balkunde, Jeong-Hee Cho, Eun-Kyoung Mo, Chang-Keun Sung

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31606

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the dietary effects of white ginseng (WG) supplementation on physical performance and expression of genes in colon and duodenum of rats.

Study Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks (young) and 44 weeks (aged) of age were allocated into three treatment groups (= 5) and fed a standard rodent chow control diet or a diet containing 200 mg/kg b.w (low-dose) or 500 mg/kg b.w (high-dose) WG.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, CNU, Daejeon. The experiment lasted for 11 weeks in the year 2014.

Results: Aged rats treated with low-dose and high-dose WG had higher body weight (10.90 and 22.22%), daily feed intake (36.51 and 28.50%), and feed efficiency ratio (125 and 300%), than    aged control rats. However, all of these parameters showed no significant difference in young rats. Low-dose and high-dose WG feeding led to significant elongation (p = 0.05) of both small and large intestines in aged rats. Blood serum transaminase (AST and ALT) activities of young rats reduced (= 0.05) with the increase in WG concentration. Aged rats blood serum ALT activity reduced and AST activity increased (= 0.05) with the increase in WG concentration. Preliminary microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed genes in the duodenum (14 genes) and colon (17 genes) of high-dose WG fed aged rats over aged control rats.

Conclusion: These data suggest that rat physiology, feed consumption and expression of genes in the duodenum and colon of aged rats are modulated by different doses of WG.