Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Status and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Oleuropein in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

Funda Karabag-Coban, Omer Hazman, Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt, Sinan Ince

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31953

The aim of the study was the evaluation of the potentially antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oleuropein against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Animals were allocated into 4 groups of 8 rats each. The control group was fed standard rat feed and received no added treatment. In the oleuropein group, oleuropein was given to normal animals at a dosages of 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) for 28 days.  In the diabetic group, STZ was injected into rats at a single dose of 50 mg/kg i.p. The last group, oleuropein was given to diabetic animals at dosage of 20 mg/kg i.p for 28 days. STZ induced significant increases of inflammation cytokines as serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and IF-γ. Also, serum blood urea nitrosamine and creatinine levels as markers of nephropathy were increased in the diabetic group. STZ increased kidney total oxidant status, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase whereas it decreased total antioxidant capacity. In addition, kidneys were examined by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods; mononuclear cell infiltration, proliferations, tubular dilatations, vacuolar degenerations, and red-brown cytoplasmic and nuclear expansion were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In contrast, oleuropein decreased amelioration of oxidant status and tissue damage in diabetic rats. In conclusion, oleuropein treatment shows an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and regenerated kidney tissue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Hausa People in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Kano Metropolis, Northern Nigeria

Helen Ehimemen Negbenebor, Kabiru Shehu, Fatima Mukhtar Mairami, Zainab Oiza Adeiza, Salisu Nura, Lawan Danlarai Fagwalawa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/28562

Diabetes mellitus known as ‘sugar disorder’ had become a euphemism among the urban Hausa tribal populace of Kano metropolis, Northern Nigeria as no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from it. Because of the existing economic melt-down in the area, people resorted back to the use of medicinal drugs that are cheaper. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted with the aim of identifying the types of plants used in the management of diabetes in Kano. Self-structured questionnaires were administered among herbalists and individuals representing the consumer population. The results obtained revealed that 34 plant species from 23 families representing 29 genera of plants were used in the management of diabetes in Kano. Out of these, 21 species including Acacia nilotica, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Guiera senegalensis, Manihot esculenta, Mangifera indica, Azadirachta indica, Syzygium guinensis, Ficus thonningii were found to be consistent with the numerous published work on medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes in various traditional systems elsewhere in the world. More so, 69% of the consumer population believed in the efficacy of traditional medicine over the conventional scientific ones while 61% of them viewed the high cost of the conventional drugs as the major reason why they resort back to the use of traditional medication. There is therefore the need for incorporating the traditional herbalists in the management of diabetes by orienting them through seminars and workshops on how to formulate standard doses for the treatment strategies so as to delay the complicated secondary signs of hypertension, hyper-and-hypoglycemia in the patients using the traditional drugs.   

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Processing on Proximate Composition of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaf

Ifeyinwa Mirabel Eze, Daniel Don Nwibo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32085

Leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are processed using different methods depending on the intended application. Using three different processing methods, we investigated the effects of processing on the proximate constitution of the leaf. Result demonstrated that the fresh raw leaf had moisture content of 82.30 ± 0.42%, which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by drying but not extraction and blanching. The protein content of the raw leaf was low (1.80 ± 0.10%). Extraction and blanching reduced the protein content, whereas drying increased the protein content significantly (p < 0.05) for raw dried leaf powder and blanched leaf products. The raw leaf contained vitamins A, B2, C and E, which were significantly reduced by extraction and blanching, but were concentrated by drying. Anti-nutrient contents of the raw leaf were low and were reduced to negligible levels by the processing techniques employed. Comparing the nutrient and chemical constituents with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) values; we found that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of nutrients, minerals, vitamins, proteins and phytochemicals and low degree of toxicants. These findings suggested that the treatment method employed in processing this leaf affected the proximate composition, and this should be considered in utilization of this leaf (and other leaves) product in various food and pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vasorelaxan Effect and Potent Antioxidant Activity of Natural Flavones Isolated from Lourteigia stoechadifolia and Ageratina stevioides, Two Venezuelan Plants

Juan Morán-Pinzón, Eily Mondolis, Andrés Abad, Juan M. Amaro-Luis, María Ángeles Sevilla, María José Montero, José Luis López-Pérez, Estela Guerrero De León

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31985

Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the vasorelaxant and antioxidant effects of natural flavones, 5,3’-dihydroxy-6,7,4’-trimetoxyflavone (eupatorin) (1), 5-hydroxy-6,7,3’,4’-tetrametoxyflavone (2), and 5,4’-dihydroxy-7-metoxyflavone (genkwanin) (3).

Study Design: Biomedical assays in isolated vascular tissue.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Panama, Panama Between March 2015 and September 2016.

Methodology: The relaxation responses to cumulative concentrations of flavones 1, 2 and 3 (10-6 - 10-4 M) were tested on aortic rings, with or without endothelium, precontracted with phenylephrine (10-6 M). In complementary experiments, the tissues were preincubated with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), methylene blue or indomethacin. In order to evaluate their antioxidant capacity, the effect of each compound on acetylcholine-response was studied in aortic pre-treated with high dose of lucigenin. Additionally, superoxide anion generation was measured in isolated aortic rings using the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method.

Results: Flavones 1, 2 and 3 induced a significantly vasorelaxant effect above 80% in aortic with endothelium. Mechanical removal of endothelium significantly decreased vasorelaxation of flavones 1 and 3 (15.6±4.6 and 28.4±2.9%, respectively). The vasorelaxant effect of flavones 1 and 3 were almost abolished when tissue was incubated with L-NAME or methylene blue. In aortic rings pre-treated with high dose of lucigenin reduced the relaxation to acetylcholine (28.4%) and it was prevented by all flavones (1=80.5; 2=81.4; and 3=66.2%). Complementary, all flavones significantly reduced superoxide levels.

Conclusion: Flavones isolated from two tropical plants are able to induce vasorelaxation, improve the impaired response to acetylcholine induced by lucigenin and exhibit radical scavenging activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacological Study of Medicinal Plant Calophyllum inophyllum L. on Swiss Albino Mice in the Management of Pain and Inflammation

Seuly Akter, Md. Saddam Hossain, Israt Jahan Bulbul, Yesmin Begum

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/29790

Aims: To investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Calophyllum inophyllum (Family: clusiaceae) in Swiss albino mice.

Study Design: For the purpose of this experiment the leaf extract was divided into two concentrations, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively. And then they were used to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the plant.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh, within a period of one year.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was conducted using Acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking, tail immersion, eddy’s hot plate method and the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using carrageenan induced hind paw edema models. All studies were carried out in mice by the ethanol extract of C.  inophyllum at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight respectively.

Results: The results of the present investigation indicates that the ethanol extract of C.  inophyllum displayed significant (P <.001) analgesic activity and showed maximum writhing inhibition (49.82%) at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight compared to standard drug indomethacin (74.56%) in acetic acid induced writhing method. In the formalin induced paw licking method, C. inophyllum showed significant (P < .001) activity in both phases and the maximum inhibition was shown at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, 50.74% and 53.79% respectively at early and late phase. The leaf ethanol extract of C. inophyllum was highly significant (P < .001) and showed  dose dependent reduction of pain in both tail immersion  and  eddy’s hot plate method and maximum inhibition was found  (55.88% and 54.17%) at 1 hour compared to standard drug. In the anti-inflammatory assay, both doses of ethanol extract of C. inophyllum showed significant (P < .001) activity after 3 hours of administration of plant extract against Carrageenan induced hind paw edema.

Conclusion: The investigated study concludes that C. inophyllum leaf extract has anti-inflammatory, central as well as peripheral analgesic effects which supports a significant scope to develop its medicinal practice.