Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Six Selected Plants against Multi-drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

G. Adjapong, F. C. Mills-Robertson, M. A. Appenteng, A. Ocloo, A. Garrill

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/30464

The problem of microbial resistance is growing and the outlook for the success of antimicrobial drugs in the future is still uncertain. For a long period, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, thus, such plants should be investigated to better understand their antimicrobial properties, safety and efficacy. This study evaluated, in vitro, antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanol fractions of six selected medicinal plants: Eugenia caryophyllata, Psidium guajava, Alchornea cordifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Fagara), and Tridax procumbens against nineteen (19) clinical isolates and a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus, using a modified agar diffusion method. The potencies of sixteen (16) formulations from five of the medicinal plants that individually showed significant antimicrobial activity were also evaluated. The ethanol fractions of the six medicinal plants inhibited the growth of all the test organisms with zones of inhibition ranging from 12.0-16.0 mm (averaging 13.3 mm) whereas that of the aqueous fractions of the six medicinal plants ranged from 6.0-18.0 mm (averaging 10.9 mm). Formulations which include Alchornea cordifolia and Eugenia cryophyllata showed inhibition zones ranging from 7.0-16.0 mm. There was significant difference between the ethanol and aqueous plant extracts against S. aureus used in this study. Minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of the herbal preparations used against the control strain (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 29213) and the clinical S. aureus isolates showed that both the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Alchornea cordifolia and the ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum produced the lowest MICs of 2 mg/ml. The results, therefore, show that these plants possess antibacterial activities that could be further investigated to identify the compound(s) responsible for the antibacterial activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Some Nutritive and Antifungal Properties of Milled Carica papaya Peels and Seeds

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Agatha C. Ike, Chimaraoke Onyeabo, Rita C. Okechukwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/27537

The Carica papaya (C. papaya) fruits consumption is common, but the peels and seeds are discarded as wastes. Thus, this study determined and compared some nutritive and antifungal properties of the C. papaya fruit peels and seeds. Results showed that vitamin A (IU) content in the peels was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in the seeds. However, the content of vitamin B1, B2 and B3 in the peels was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than those in the seeds. The content of each of the determined minerals viz: Potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium was higher (p<0.05) in the peels than in the seeds. In either sample, potassium content was highest followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium. The aqueous extract of the peels had highest activity against C. albicans while that of seeds had no activity against F. oxysporum. The aqueous extract of the peels had higher (p<0.05) activity against the tested fungi compared to that of the seeds. The ethanol extract of the peels had highest activity against C. albicans while the ethanol extract of the seeds had no activity against C. albicans. The ethanol extract of the peels had higher (p<0.05) activity against the C. albicans and A. flavus compared to that of the seeds. However, the ethanol extract of the seeds had higher (p<0.05) activity against F. oxysporum compared to that of the peels. The ethanol extract of the peels had higher activity against the tested fungi compared to the aqueous extract of the peels and seeds. There was no activity (0.00 mm) for the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the seeds against C. albicans and F. oxysporum respectively. In conclusion, the C. papaya peels could be a better source than the seeds for these nutrients, notably vitamin A, sodium and potassium while the peels extracted notably with ethanol could offer higher antifungal activity against the studied fungi. The higher activity of the ethanol extract of the seeds against               F. oxysporum deserves a follow up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta and Its Activity against Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Amanda Chaaban, Andre Luis Fachini de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Nogueira Martins, Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi, Marcelo Beltrão Molento

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/32078

Background: Myiasis produced by Diptera larvae is responsible for the invasion of body tissues, seriously compromising animal welfare and causing significant economic losses to livestock. Cochliomyia macellaria is an important agent responsible for secondary myiasis, exacerbating the primary myiasis that could be already installed. Tagetes minuta essential oil (TMEO) is known for its anthelmintic and insecticidal properties, and it could be a sustainable alternative for the control and treatment of myiasis.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate TMEO activity on the third instar larvae (L3) of C. macellaria under laboratory conditions.

Methods: Essential oils of T. minuta fresh aerial parts were extracted by hydrodistillation, characterized by gas chromatography coupling mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested against C. macellaria. Groups of 20 L3 were placed on filter paper impregnated with increasing (from 1.25 to 20%) TMEO concentrations, equivalent to 0.19 to 3.18 μl/cm2, solubilized in ethanol or acetone.

Results: The major compounds of TMEO were dihydrotagetone (67.64%), trans-beta-ocimene (16.23%), trans-tagetone (10.14%) and verbenone (2.98%), respectively. The lethal concentrations of 50% were 0.678 and 0.580 for ethanol and 1.938 and 1.50 μl/cm2 for acetone, 24 and 48 h after TMEO exposure, respectively. The TMEO at 1.59 μl/cm2 caused 93.33% mortality to L3 after 48 h and the 0.7961 μl/cm2 caused an inhibition of 87.27% of L3 emergence.

Conclusion: The TMEO had a time and concentration-dependent activity against L3 of C. macellaria; where optimal effects were observed using low concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Three Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh for Antimicrobial Properties

Tasnuva Sharmin, Md. Shahidur Rahman, Md. Al Hasan Opu, Md. Amran Hossain

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31515

Aim: The methanolic crude extracts of Wedelia chinensis Osbeck. Merr. whole plant, Mimosa diplotricha  Sauvalle. stem bark and Bauhinia purpurea Roxb. leaf as well as their organic and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated for antimicrobial potential.

Study Design: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method.

Place and Duration of Study: Phytochemical Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Science, State University of Bangladesh, from April to September, 2016.

Methodology: Accurate amount of test sample was weighed and dissolved in measured volume of solvent which was then applied to sterile discs. The discs were then carefully dried for the evaporation of the residual solvent. The Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS) of University of Dhaka provided the bacterial and fungal strains used for the experiment. The strains were collected as pure cultures. In this investigation, ciprofloxacin (30 μg/disc) disc was used as the standard.

Results: The highest 16.0 mm zone of inhibition was exhibited against Vibrio parahemolyticus by the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of methanolic crude extract of W. chinensis. The hexane soluble fraction showed 12.0 mm zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of M. diplotricha exhibited the highest 14.0 mm zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This fraction also revealed 11.0 mm zone of inhibition against. Bacillus megaterium. 5.0 to 15.0 mm zone of inhibition was demonstrated by test samples of B. malabarica. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of B. malabarica extract showed the highest (15.0 mm) zone of inhibition against Salmonella typhi.

Conclusion: From our investigation, it can be suggested that, the extractives can further be studied extensively to find out their efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Nigerian Moringa oleifera Lam. Flowers

Olaoye S. Balogun, Rachael Y. Fadare, Olatomide A. Fadare, David A. Akinpelu, Craig A. Obafemi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/31834

Aims: To investigate the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil isolated from flowers of Moringa oleifera (MO) grown in Western Nigeria.

Methodology: Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out for identification and determination of the phytochemical constituents of the oil. Standard microbiological methods was also employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the oil.

Results: GC-MS analysis revealed a total of twenty-five phytochemical constituents, with the major constituents found to be nonanal (17.3%), trans-geranyl geraniol (13.5%) and eicosane (12.3%), α-terpineol (7.2%), methyl palmitate (4.6%) and methyl octadec-9-enoate (4.1%). The antibacterial assay, using standard microbiological methods, showed that the oil had inhibitory effects against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exhibited by the essential oil against test bacteria ranged between 1.25 mg/mL and > 5 mg/mL.

Conclusion: Essential oil of Nigerian Moringa oleifera flowers contains biologically active ingredients and possess some level of antibacterial activity.  The oil can be a good source of antibacterial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Salt Tolerant Genotypes during Germination and Early Seedling Stage in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

Md. Shakh Forid, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Most. Minara Akter, Md. Mobinul Islam, Imrul Kaes

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2017/30924

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of NaCl (0 dS/m i. e. distilled water, 4 dS/m , 8 dS/m, 12 dS/m and 16 dS/m) solutions on germination and seedling characteristics of five genotypes (Bindu, Tej1701, Lanka1820, Picnic and Seaty) of chilli. The genotypes and NaCl salt solutions were laid out manually by using completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications under laboratory conditions. NaCl salt solutions significantly affected seed germination in chilli and seed germination was decreased with increasing level of salinity. The shoot length, root length, shoot to root length ratio, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root decreased with increasing NaCl salt solutions and proline accumulation increased with increasing NaCl salt solution in the germination media as compared to control. Proline accumulation was maximum at 12 dS/m NaCl salt solution in genotype Picnic and minimum in genotype Seaty. Among the five genotypes of chilli, Bindu and Picnic were more tolerant to NaCl saline action as compared to Tej1701 and Lanka1820. The genotype Seaty was more sensitive to saline action. However, further studies are needed in this respect including more genotypes of chilli as well as the salinity situations of the actual field conditions.