Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids of Suaeda Species Collected in Al Jouf Area

Elham Amin, Arafa Musa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30748

Aims: Al Jouf area is gifted with a wide range of plant genera belonging to different plant families. In a research program targeting the phytochemical exploration of this area plants, three species representing the genus Suaeda in this area; S. aegyptiaca, S. fruticosa and S. mollis (Family Chenopodiaceae) were subjected for investigation. The present study aimed to explore the secondary metabolite pattern of the three Suaeda species growing in Al Jouf area, through assessment of the total phenolics, total flavonoids and anti-oxidant activity of four different extracts of S. aegyptiaca, Suaeda fruticosa and Suaeda mollis.

Methodology: Finely powdered plant material (50 g) of each of the three plant species were exhaustively extracted with ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and water. Total phenolics content, total flavonoids content and anti-oxidant activity of all extracts for each species were assessed using Folin Ciocalteu, Aluminium chloride and DPPH assay methods, respectively.

Results: Different extracts showed variable percentage yield of each of the three Suaeda species. The highest flavonoid content was detected in the methanol extract of S. aegyptiaca and S. mollis, while the largest content of phenolic compounds are recorded in the ethanol and methanol extracts of S. mollis. Estimation of anti-oxidant activity revealed highest activity for the ethanol and methanol extracts of S. mollis.

Conclusion: The presented results revealed highest anti-oxidant activity of S. mollis compared to the activity of S. aegyptiaca and S. fruticosa, these results could be attributed to highest content of phenolic and flavonoid content of this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Infleunce of Nauclea latifolia Leaf Extracts on Some Haematological Parameters of Rats on Coconut Oil and Non-coconut Oil Meals

M. I. Akpanabiatu, H. Akpan, U. E. Bassey, U. F. Ufot

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/19733

Aims: The haematological effects of Nauclea latifolia leaf extract on normal mature albino Wistar rats and normal mature hyperlipidemic rats were being investigated.

Study Design: 55 albino rats weighing between 200 – 230 g were divided into 3 experiments. Group 2, 3, 4 of Experiment 1 were administered with 170, 340 and 540 mg/kg body weight of water extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves respectively and Group 1 served as control for both experiment 1 and 2. Group 1, 2 and 3 of Experiment 2 received 170, 340 and 510 mg/kg body weight of water soluble ethanol extract while the animals in Experiment 3 were fed with coconut oil meal for 8 weeks before administration of 170, 340 and 510 mg/kg of water soluble fraction ethanol extract to Group 2, 3, 4 respectively while Group 1 served as control. All extracts were administered orally for two weeks.

Results: Analysis of the haematological indices at p<0.05 showed that there were no significant changes in the WBC counts hence the extracts had no deleterious effect on the defense mechanism of the rats. Similar observations were made for Hb concentration and PCV counts. There was a significant increase in RBC counts in Experiment 1 and 3 and a decreased RBC counts in Experiment 2. Platelet counts showed significant increase in Experiment 1 and 2 but there were no significant changes in Experiment 3, implying that the Nauclea latifolia may improve haematological functions in coconut oil induced hyperlipidemia.

Conclusion: This study shows that the leaf extract of Nauclea latifolia especially the water extract had an overall beneficiary effect on haematological parameters of albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus Extract against Cisplatin Induced Liver Damage in Wistar Rats

Pritt Verma, Shravan Kumar Paswan, Abhisek Raj, Chetan Rastogi, Sajal Srivastva, Ch. V. Rao

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30936

Although it is being an extremely potent cytotoxic drug, cisplatin has vital poisonous adverse effects limiting its use like nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity hepatotoxicity. It is thought that cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity is caused by oxidative stress ensuing from raised reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was designed to scrutinize the hepatoprotective effect of plant extract from a lichen species, Dolichousnea longissima (DUL) at doses, 100 and 200 mg/kg, against cisplatin induced hepatic damage. 30 wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups, including 2 experimental, 1 control and 1 standard, 5 mg/kg/day of cisplatin was injected intraperitoneally (I.P)  daily for 7 days. Following liver damage, DUL was applied at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 7 days. The group given normal diet and water was given a control group. Alanine aminotransferase, Aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatinine, urea and bilirubin were evaluated in the serum samples obtained from the rat groups. Liver tissues were removed and were assessed for antioxidant parameters and histological examination. The treatment with DUL along with cisplatin showed noticeably increased hepatic level in SOD, CAT, GPX and reduced malondialdehyde level. The results also showed that 200 mg/kg daily dose of DUL might be considered to have hepatoprotective effect by battening the studied biochemical and antioxidant parameters and also tissue histological structures. Thus, DUL could be potentially used as a hepatoprotective agent at a dosage of 200 mg/kg b.w against liver toxicity induced by cisplatin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Root Extract of Acacia nilotica on Haematological and Lipid Profile in Rats

Alli Lukman Adewale

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/31262

Aim: Acacia nilotica root has been used for different medicinal purposes wherever the plant is found in Nigeria. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Acacia nilotica aqueous root extract on hematological parameters and lipid profile in rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Research work carried out by the author in the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja and department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Abuja between June and December 2015.

Methods: Forty eight Wistar rats (180.00 ± 20 g) separated into 24 females and 24 males, were randomly divided into four groups of six rats per group. Group 1, served as the control and received 10 ml/kg body weight of distilled water, while rats in groups 2, 3 and 4 received extract at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally, respectively for 28 days. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day 29 (after the rats were sacrificed) into EDTA bottles (haematology profile) and plain bottles (lipid profile). Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity were also carried out.

Results: The extract at 500 mg/kg body weight, produced significant increase in red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) compared to the control in male rats. In female rats, the dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt of the extract produced significant increase in Hb and PCV. There was significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides at      500 mg/kg b.wt in both male and female rats.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that aqueous root extract of Acacia nilotica can be used to correct anaemia by increasing PCV and also prevent hypercholesterolemia by reducing serum cholesterol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Coula edulis Baill. Seed Extracts

Basil Nse Ita, Gloria Ihuoma Ndukwe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30762

Aim: In this work, the antioxidant activity of organic and aqueous extracts of seed of Coula edulis Baill. was evaluated.

Study Design: Seeds of Coula edulis were collected, authenticated and extracted with acetone, ethanol and water respectively. The resulting extracts were used for antioxidant assay.

Place and Duration of Study: This work was done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo between November 2015 and July 2016.

Methodology: Air-dried seeds of Coula edulis (800 g) were pulverized and macerated with 2.5 L of acetone, ethanol and water separately for 24 hrs at room temperature and then filtered. The acetone and ethanol filtrates were concentrated in vacuo, while the aqueous extract was freeze-dried to obtain the crude acetone (AcE), ethanol (EtE) and aqueous (AqE) extracts respectively. Content of total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C in the extracts were determined. Also, the DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity as well as the metal chelating and reducing power of the extracts were also evaluated.

Results: Our results indicated that Coula edulis seed is a rich source of total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C. Amongst the tested extracts, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics (28.3 mgGAE/g), could chelate Fe2+ ions more effectively (IC50 = 46.2 μg/mL) and showed the best DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50 = 19.2 μg/mL). The aqueous extract was the richest in flavonoids and vitamin C. Also, it showed the best reducing power and ABTS radical scavenging abilities with an IC50 of 25.2 μg/mL.

Conclusion: Coula edulis seed is a good source of natural antioxidants that can be exploited in food and therapeutic applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC/MS/MS Study of Phenolic Compounds of Leucaena leucocephala Legumes Monitored with Their in vitro Antihyperglycemic Activity

Nevein M. Abdelhady, Gamil M. Abdallah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/31403

High pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) is considered as one of most the sensitive modern techniques used for determination of phenolic compounds, hence in this research it was utilized for characterization of a variety of phenolic compounds in Leucaena leucocephala legumes growing in Egypt.

HPLC gradient elution analysis using water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid was carried out for standard solutions of the available phenolic and flavonoid compounds as well as the investigated fraction in the negative ion mode using MS/MS product ion scans where the deprotonated molecules [M‒H]- were observed for all the studied compounds; for flavonol and flavone glycosides, the spectra exhibit both the deprotonated molecule [M‒H]of the glycoside and the ion corresponding to the deprotonated aglycone [A‒H], the latter ion is formed by loss of the sugar residue from the glycosides; different fragmentation pattern was observed for flavone-C-glycosides which involved additional fragmentation in the sugar part while for methyl ether aglycones, formation of [M‒CH3]‒ • was observed.

The gained results revealed the elution of eleven phenolic compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction, namely; isovanillin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, apigenin-8-C-glucoside (vitexin), quercetin 3-O-galactoside (hyperoside), luteolin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin, isorhamnetin, luteolin 6-methyl ether (neptein), kaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether and  5,7,3',4'-dihydroquercetin tetramethyl ether (taxifolin 5,7,3',4'- tetramethyl ether) successively.

The methanol extract and different fractions of Leucaena leucocephala legumes were subjected to in vitro evaluation of their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity at different dose levels compared to the reference standard drug “Acarbose”, the gained results revealed that methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction exhibited significant percent inhibitory activity at dose level of 2.5 mgml-1 (71.55±0.009%, IC50 0.210±0.003 mg ml-1 & 65.44±0.005%, IC50 0.270±0.042 mg ml-1) respectively compared to Acarbose (55.45±0.051%, IC50 0.650±0.051 mg ml-1) which affords both as effective natural antihyperglycemic drugs.