Open Access Original Research Article

Astragalus glycyphyllos and Astragalus glycyphylloides Derived Polysaccharides Possessing in vitro Antioxidant Properties

Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Vessela Vitcheva, Rumyana Simeonova, Virginia Tzankova, Alexandar Shkondrov, Petrnaka Zdraveva, Ilina Krasteva

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30432

Aim: To evaluate and compare the effects of polysaccharides, isolated from n-butanol extracts of Astragalus glycyphyllos (PS1) and Astragalus glycyphylloides (PS2) in model of non-enzyme- and enzyme-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in isolated rat liver microsomes.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacognosy and Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Drug Toxicity, Department of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, between August 2014 and December 2015.

Methods: In non enzyme-induced LPO, the microsomes were incubated with a solution of iron sulphate and ascorbinic acid (Fe2+/AA). The enzyme-induced lipid peroxidation was performed by incubating rat liver microsomes with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the presence of NADPH. The effects of PS1 and PS2 were evaluated after 20 min of incubation at the following concentrations: 60 µg/mL; 6 µg/mL; 0.6 µg/mL. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation was measured. Silymarin (60-0.6 µg/mL) was used as a positive control.

Results: The results of our study showed that in non-enzyme induced LPO model, both PS1 and PS2 exerted comparable, concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. At the highest concentration, which was the most potent as well, the formation of MDA was significantly decreased by 45% (P<0.05) by PS1 and by 40% (P<0.05) by PS2. In enzyme-induced LPO model, the PS1 showed slightly more potent antioxidant activity at the highest tested concentration, discerned by MDA decrease by 35% (P<0.05), in comparison to a decrease of 29% (P<0.05) by PS2 at the same concentration level. The antioxidant activity of both polysaccharides, in the both LPO models, however, was lower in comparison to silymarin which at 60 µg/mL decreased the MDA production by 53-55% (P<0.05) in both models.

Conclusion: On the basis of our results we conclude that the investigated two polysaccharide mixtures, PS1 and PS2 possess antioxidant properties in in vitro models of Fe2+/AA and CCl4/NADPH lipid peroxidation, induced in isolated liver microsomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Shoot Multiplication of Medicinally Important Plant Andrographis lineata Nees via Nodal Explants

V. Aruna, T. Pullaiah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30411

Andrographis lineata Nees (Acanthaceae) is an endemic herb rich in flavonoids and diterpenoids which have pharmaceutical importance. Seedling explants source has not been studied for micropropagation and hence the present investigation has been taken up. An efficient protocol was developed for aseptic seed germination and in vitro shoot multiplication from different aseptic seedling explants. 30 days old aseptic seedlings grown on half strength MS medium were used as source of explants. Shoot tips, nodal segment, cotyledonary nodes, leaves, internodes and root segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BA 8.87 µM for testing for their responsivity. Nodal segments gave a maximum response when compared to other seedling explants and therefore were used in further experiments. Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins individually and in combination with auxins. Maximum number of 32.04 shoots per nodal explant were produced after 30 days of culturing on BA 8.87 µM + Indole-3-Butyric acid (IBA) 6.54 µM. Number of shoots further increased by sub culturing into fresh medium containing MS medium supplemented with BA 8.87 µM. Shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium and rooted plants were hardened in polycups containing sterile peat moss, farmyard manure and soil (1:1:1) with 75% survival rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological and Phytochemical Responses of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Plant on in vitro Callus Formation

Mohammad M. El-Zefzafy, Gouda T. M. Dawoud, Ismail M. A. M. Shahhat

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30486

Two experiments were carried out to determine the physiological and phytochemical responses in Rosmarinus officinalis on in vitro callus formation/induction using natural and synthetic auxin, different cytokinin types and concentrations, different phenylalanine concentrations and varying incubation periods. The first one was conducted to study the effect of different auxin types; IAA or NAA combined with cytokinins; BAP or TDZ. Second was done to examine the interaction between phenylalanine and incubation period. The results indicated that callus induction was completely inhibited in the absence of both auxin and cytokinin. Different ratios of auxin to cytokinin significantly affected the physiological callus responses. The treatment of NAA0.125 + BAP1.0 gave the highest callus induction and growth. Rosmarinic acid was slightly influenced growth regulators. Maximum callus fresh and dry weight and rosmarinic acid biosynthesis was recorded in (Phe150 + D42) treatment. Phe0.0 + D42 achieved the highest value of callus growth index (CGI), while the lowest CGI was found in the treatment of (Phe150 + D28). The minimum value of relative growth rate (RGR) was resulted with (Phe150 + D56), while (Phe0.0 + D28) achieved the best RGR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aqueous Extract of Momordica charantia, Reduces Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Alejandra Castellanos-Campos, Marco Antonio González Coronel, Samuel Treviño, Ulises Peña-Rosas, Berenice Venegas, José Albino Moreno Rodríguez, Teresa Marquez-Cabrera, José Ausencio Moran-Dominguez, Alfonso Díaz, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30697

The Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a widely used plant in the traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been shown that Momordica charantia (Mc) has hypoglycemic effects on animals and humans, however, we don´t know if this effect is present in a chronic time and if the plant extract (stem and leaves) participates in the antihyperglycemic effect.

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of Momordica charantia (Mc) and to study the hypoglycemic effect of Mc in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Study Design: Methods of characterization of Mc like HPLC, FITR and UV-VIS. In vivo antidiabetical assays in Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of general chemistry and department of pharmacy in the FCQ-BUAP, between January-August 2015.

Methodology: Collection of Mc was in Santiago Tuxtla, Veracruz, Mexico and ethanolic extract was made for characterizations studies. 5 mg of ethanolic extract of Mc were analyzed with HPLC. Posteriorly, in FITR studies, The Mc extract was mixed with KBr and pressed and recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. UV visible methods was recorded in a Varian Cary 100. For pharmacological studies, diabetic Wistar male rats were administered with aqueous extract of Mc during 30 days in different doses (10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg orally). Subsequently, glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin concentration were measured.

Results: The composition analysis showed that the Mc ethanolic extract has a great number of secondary metabolites which may be responsible of many plant properties. The dose-response study of Mc aqueous extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, showed that the hypoglycemic effect depends of the Mc dose (173.8 ± 11 mg/dL to 63.8 ± 2.8 mg/dL in rats administered with 160 mg/kg of Mc). Finally, we found that the Mc aqueous extract decreases the hyperglycemia (148.5 ± 5.7 mg/dLof alloxan group to 112.5 ± 5 mg/dL with Mc extract) and caused an increment in the insulin concentration (14.4 ± 0.05 mU/mL to 23.7 ± 1.2 mU/mL), 30 days after administration of Mc.

Conclusion: Mc aqueous extract, has antihyperglycemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This study shows the importance of the knowledge about traditional medicine and different alternatives for diabetes treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Different Ocimum gratissimum Linn. Leaf Extracts in Male Whistar Albino Rats

J. S. Aprioku, O. S. Joseph, A. W. Obianime

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30150

Aim: This study was aimed at quantifying the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potency and efficacy of aqueous (AQ) and ethanolic leaf extracts of O. gratissimum (ET) in Whistar rats.

Methodology: Inflammation (paw edema) was induced in rats (n=5 per group) with fresh egg albumin (0.1 ml); groups for anti-inflammatory experiment were pretreated (0.5 h), while those for anti-nociceptive experiment were post-treated (2.5 h) with AQ (200, 400 or 800 mg/kg, p.o.), ET (200, 400 or 800 mg/kg, p.o.), piroxicam (20 mg/kg, i.p.), or normal saline (1 mL/kg, i.p.). Paw sizes of anti-inflammatory group rats were measured at 0 and 2 h after injection of phlogistic agent using plethysmometer, whereas mechanical nociceptive thresholds were measured in anti-nociceptive group rats before and 2 h after test agent treatments using analgesymeter.

Results: There was neither change in inflammatory reaction (after egg albumin injection at time 0 or 2 h) nor threshold in control rats before or after normal saline treatment. AQ inhibited (P = .05) paw edema at 400 mg/kg (26%) and 800 mg/kg (64%); whereas all three doses of ET caused inhibitions (35, 39 and 32%, respectively) compared to the egg albumin induced values. AQ and ET treatments increased (P = .05) mechanical nociceptive thresholds, but maximum effects were observed at 400 mg/kg for both extracts (144 and 270%, respectively) compared to values obtained before extract treatment. Piroxicam produced significant inhibitions in inflammation (20%) and nociception (100%).

Conclusion: ET is more potent, but AQ is about twice as efficacious as ET in anti-inflammatory activity. Also, ET is more potent and has a higher analgesic efficacy than AQ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haematopoietic Enhancing Effect of Ethanolic Seed Extract of Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) on Bone Marrow of Wistar Rats

E. Finbarrs-Bello, N. J. Nto, I. T. Ikele, M. I. Sani, V. Atuadu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30452

Aim: To evaluate the haematopoietic property of citrullus lanatus seed extract by determining the phytochemical, cytological and histological profiles on the bone marrow of wistar rats. 

Methodology: Phytochemical properties were determined using a UNICAMM 969 atomic absorption spectrophotometer and functional groups were analyzed using Furrier Transform Infrared ray (FTIR). Fifteen (15) wistar rats average weights of 150 g were divided into three groups A, B, and C of 5 rats each. Group A (controls) received 0.1 ml saline while groups B and C received 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic seed extract of Citrullus lanatus respectively for 14 days. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia using ketamine 50 mg/kg. Bone marrow was collected from the femoral shaft and stained using haematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and its smear was also stained cytologically using May-Grünwald-giemsa stain.

Results: Atomic Absorbance Spectrum (AAS) revealed concentrations of 754.20 µg/kg, 53.70 µg/kg, 45.10 µg/kg, 24.20 mg/kg 11.80 µg/kg and 1.10 µg/kg for Iron, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Nickel and Cadmium ions respectively. The FTIR revealed presence of methyl, aldehyde, acetyl, carboxyl and ether groups. Bone marrow histology from groups B and C show greater cellularity compared to the control (group A). The cytology revealed more of myeloid precursors in the control and erythroid lymphoid precursors in the extract groups.

Conclusion: Citrullus lanatus seed extract has physiochemical properties which support its hematopoietic effect on the bone marrow and can be use as blood supplement.