Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation of the Purity of Ursolic Acid Dietary Supplements

Ana L. Sesatty, Sarah L. Ullevig

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30144

Aims: Ursolic acid (UA) is a phytochemical found in fruits and herbs such as apples, cherries, rosemary and thyme. A multitude of rodent studies have shown UA’s protective effects in cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to investigate if a high purity UA dietary supplement is available for use in future human studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Theoretical weight studies were performed at the University of Texas at San Antonio while UA quantification studies were performed in the Metabolomics Laboratory at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio between January 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: Four oral UA supplements were analyzed for percent theoretical weight and UA concentration. UA supplement content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and the UA concentration was calculated based on a standard curve. Additional high abundance compounds were identified using HPLC-ESI-MS.

Results: All UA supplement capsules averaged over 200% theoretical weight. The UA concentration in the supplements ranged from 14-49% and 12 additional compounds were identified.

Conclusion: UA supplements provided more than 200% the stated quantity listed on the Supplement Facts Panel. However, UA supplements contained less than 50% UA and additional compounds identified were constituents of plants or commonly found in food products. A UA supplement with higher purity is needed to investigate its therapeutic effects in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, In-vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Characteristics of Tetrapleura tetraptera Extracts

Okwute Simon Koma, Olajide Olutayo Olawumi, Etuk-Udo Godwin, Orishadipe Abayomi Theophilus

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29585

Aims: In order to provide scientific evidence for the ethno-medical claims, this study was conducted to determine the phyto-constituents, antimicrobial activity and the antioxidant activity of the crude leaf and stem bark extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum. & Thonn.) Taub.

Study Design: The plant was authenticated by a taxonomist at Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) and a voucher specimen was kept for future reference. The leaf and stem bark were extracted using 95% ethanol and the crude extracts were screened for phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials and then fractionated.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken between October 2015 and June 2016, at Nigeria Institute of Leather and Science Technology (Microbiology Laboratory) Zaria, Kaduna State and the Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Sheda, Abuja, Nigeria.

Methodology: Air-dried leaves and stem bark of T. tetraptera were pulverized to powder with a mortar and a pestle. The powdered leaves and stem bark were then kept in airtight containers until required for further work. Each of the ground plant samples (1 Kg) was exhaustively extracted with 95% ethanol using a Soxhlet extractor. The extracts were concentrated at 40°C to dryness using a rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extracts. The crude extracts were screened for phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity against some selected pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacteruim ulcerans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Klebsiclla pneumonia, Candida krusei and antioxidant activity using standard procedures.

Results: Alkaloids, phlobatanins, flavonoids, volatile oils and tanins were present in the crude extract of each plant part. However, steroids and saponins were detected only in the stem bark while phenols, resin and terpenoids were detected only in the leaf extract. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH inhibition method. The crude stem bark extract exhibited a stronger free radical scavenging activity than the leaf (69.81: 63.46% at 5 mg/ml and 71.54: 63.85% at 4 mg/ml, respectively). The results of antimicrobial screening also showed that the crude stem bark extract was more active with inhibitory activity between 27-32 mm compared to that of the crude leaf extract which was between 24-29 mm, against the test organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyrogens, Klebsciella pneumonia, and Candida krusei. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the crude stem bark extract was recorded at 0.625 mg/ml, while that of the leaf was between 0.625 and 1.25 mg/ml. The results obtained suggested that both the crude ethanol extracts of the stem bark and leaf possess strong anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.

Conclusion: The susceptibility of microorganisms such as Staphylococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. to certain phyto-compounds infers that the bioactive compounds in plants can be further developed for the management of several disease conditions thereby authenticating their use in traditional medicine. The relative potency of the studied plant extracts in comparison to the standard drug ciprofloxacin suggests that possible new drug candidates can be harnessed from the plant, Tetrapleura tetraptera. From the results obtained in this study, further work will now be done to isolate and identify the active principles.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-Herpes simplex Type-1 Virus Evaluation of Extracts from Kenya Grown Pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium)

Simon Alem, Festus M. Tolo, Nicholas Adipo, Peter G. Mwitari, Ngetich K. Japheth, Anselimo O. Makokha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28967

Objective: To evaluate in vitro anti-Herpes simplex type 1 activity of methanol and aqueous crude extracts of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) plant grown in Kenya.

Methods: Cytotoxic effect of methanol and aqueous extracts was determined on vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells) by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-DiphenylTetrazolium Bromide) reduction colorimetric assay. Antiviral effect of pyrethrum extracts was evaluated; before (post-treatment infection) virus infection to the cells and after (pre-treatment infection) virus infection to cells.

Results: Methanol extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity of CC50 = 42.23 ± 0.320 µg/ml compared to aqueous extract of CC50 = 249 ± 8.4 µg/ml. Methanol extract exhibited a higher anti HSV-1 potency of IC50 = 1.69 µg/ml (TI = 24.99) than the aqueous extract of IC50 = 38.13 µg/ml (TI = 6.53) in the post-treatment infection evaluations. This might be due to its effect on cellular receptors preventing virus entry, while the aqueous extract exhibited higher virus inhibitory potency in the pre-treatment infection, of IC50 = 23.21 µg/ml (TI=10.73) compared to the methanol extract of IC50 = 11.18 µg/ml (TI =3.78), this effect could be due to its effect on some stage during HSV virus replication process.

Conclusions:  Crude methanol and aqueous extracts from Kenyan grown pyrethrum exhibited inhibition potency against HSV-1 in vitro on Vero cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Pharmacological Properties and Phenolic Contents of Stem Barks Extracts of Piliostigma reticulatum (DC) HOCHST and Piliostigma thonningii (SCHUM) MILNE-REDH. (Caesalpiniaceae)

Ouédraogo Noufou, A. M. Emmanuel Thiombiano, Sawadogo W. Richard, Tibiri André, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Lompo Marius, Diederich Marc, Guissou I. Pierre

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30417

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition activities of extracts from stem barks of Piliostigma reticulatum and Piliostigma thonningii.

Methodology: Methanol extract and decoction from stem barks of P. reticulatum and P. thonningii were evaluated for their lipoxygenase inhibitor effect and antioxidant properties using 2, 2’-azino-bis (acid 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonique (ABTS) and lipid peroxidation. Cytotoxic effect on leukemia cell lines (K562) was evaluated by trypan blue assay. Total phenolic, tannins and flavonoids contents in the extracts were determined with standard methods.

Results: P. thonningii and P. reticulatum methanol extracts inhibited lipoxygenase activity with IC50 values of 7.80 ± 0.57 and 12.86 ± 1.47 µg/mL respectively. With ABTS scavenging method,     P. thonningii methanol extract showed the strongest activity with IC50 value of 3.96 ± 0.03 µg/mL, followed by P. reticulatum methanol extract (IC50 = 4.90 ± 0.07 µg/mL). Both decoctions from these plants had scavenged ABTS+ radical. Methanol extracts from P. thonningii and P. reticulatum exhibited significant activity against lipid peroxidation and K562 cells viability. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenolic compounds including tannins and flavonoids in methanolic extracts and decoctions from P. reticulatum and P. thonningii.

Conclusion: The extracts from Piliostigma reticulatum and Piliostigma thonningii stem barks exhibited lipoxygenase inhibitor, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Herbal Medicine against Enterococcus faecalis on Infected Root Canal Substrate: An Ex-vivo Study

Elhadi M. Awooda, Sally A. Abdelkarim

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25915

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of ginger, cinnamon and their combination against Enterococcus faecalis located in infected root canals.

Methodology: A quasi experimental pre-test post-test design was applied through microbiological testing upon prepared root canals of 50 extracted single-rooted teeth. The roots were divided into a total of 5 groups, each group consisted of 10 root canals; three groups contained extracts of ginger, cinnamon, and their combination in a gel form. In addition; a positive control group of calcium hydroxide with Iodoform paste and a negative control group of solely infected root canals. All root canals in each group were infected by Enterococcus faecalis. The colony forming units (CFU) in each root canal were recorded before and after the procedure, and the minimum inhibitory concentration for each test solution was also obtained. Comparisons between the different variables were conducted through the Kruskal Wallis, Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U tests with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: Extracts of ginger, cinnamon and their combination showed a reduction in (CFU) from an initial count of 83 colonies to a mean (CFU) of 26.5, 77.8 and 49.7, respectively. Ginger showed the greatest antibacterial efficacy in comparison with the others. Upon comparison of the negative control group and the test solutions of ginger, cinnamon and their combination, significant differences were observed (P ˂ 0.05), while no statistical differences (P ˃ 0.05) were observed when comparing with the Calcium Hydroxide with Iodoform group to these test solutions.

Conclusions: An inhibitory effect against Enterococcus faecalis occurred upon testing ginger, cinnamon and their combination. Ginger was found to have the highest effect in comparison to other test groups.

Open Access Review Article

Conservation of an Endangered Medicinal Forest Tree Oroxylum indicum (L) Kurz through in-vitro Micropropagation-A Review

Samatha Talari, Shyamsundarachary Rudroju, Rama Swamy Nanna

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/30310

The species Oroxylum indicum (L) Kurz (Bignoniaceae) is an important medicinal tree being rich in secondary metabolites, employed in various traditional medicinal systems from folk to modern medicine. All the plant parts (root, stem bark, seed, leaf and flower) of the species are known to possess bioactive compounds and the whole plant is over exploited by pharmaceutical industries. In view of the increased anthropogenic activities, destruction of natural habitat, these trees are being rapidly eroded from natural ecosystem. Thus the tree is becoming an endangered, vulnerable and will be facing extinction in near future and is being pushed into the red data book. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of conservation methodologies through in-vitro culture techniques by employing embryo culture, mericlone technology and somatic embryogenesis etc., for large-scale production of this valuable medicinal tree. In the present review we made an attempt to compile and critically analyze the various reports on micro-propagation protocols for the conservation of this endangered valuable medicinal forest tree species.