Open Access Minireview Article

Liquidambar formosana Hance: A Mini-review of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacology

Xi Lin Ouyang, Shan Yi, Hua Yuan Lu, Shang Mei Wu, Hong Qiong Zhao

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29440

Aims: Liquidambar formosana Hance is of great an ornamental and economic arbor. Its’ various organs, such as the gum, fruits, barks, and leaves have a great medicinal value and commonly used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Currently, several studies aimed at isolation and identification of active constituents of L. formosana and its pharmacological actions of different plant parts based on the treatment of several diseases. The main objective of this paper is to review recent advances of L. formosana in chemical constituents and pharmacology during the last two decades, in an attempt to provide useful references for plant drug studies.

Methodology: Information on L. formosana from journals and books published during the last two decades was collected based on worldwide accepted scientific databases via an electronic search (PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Springer, Web of Science and CNKI).

Results: The detailed phytochemical composition with respect to the pharmacological properties of different parts of this multipurpose tree. Trace elements, volatile oils, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenylpropanoids constituents are the natural plant secondary metabolites known from the different organs of L. formosana. The main pharmacological actions of                   L. formosana and compounds isolated therefrom include antitumor, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory antidepressant, and antioxidant actions. L. formosana leaves are a strong antioxidant source and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals.

Conclusion: Many pharmacological activities appear to be attributable to terpenoid and the flavonoid constituents; terpenoids had been proposed as being responsible for the antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities that had been documented for L. formosana. Based on the foundation of chemical constituents, their possible contribution to the demonstrated efficacy of extracts obtained from L. formosana, as well as new directions on quality control and application of this plant are suggested. These biologically active compounds are also being determined quantitatively by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis, which can be used to control the quantity of this plant. L. formosana will be further developed as medicinal and economic values, and thereby promote its cultivation. Further research is required to isolate and identify more new compounds contribute to the pharmacological effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Haemolytic Activity of Leaves from Acacia podalyriifolia

F. G. R. Pinto, F. C. F. Da Silva, A. P. Barbosa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28575

Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn ex G. Don (Fabaceae) is a plant used in south Brazil for ornamental purposes. The leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of bacterial infection, diabetes, gastrointestinal disturbances, in addition to fat reduction and as an antioxidant agent. Ethnopharmacological studies reported in the literature showed the presence of coumarin, tannin, cyanogenic glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and saponins. The evaluation of the haemolytic activity of dry crude butanolic extract from leaves of A. podalyriifolia was evaluated and it revealed a low haemolytic activity when compared with the extract of Tribullus terrestris, herbal reference product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil of Callistemon citrinus from Ethiopia

Niguse Aweke, Solomon Yeshanew

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/27987

Aims: The present study aimed to determine the chemical components and antibacterial activities of essential oil of the leaves of Callistemon citrinus collected from Ethiopia.

Methodology: For identification and determination of the phytochemical constituents of the oil, Gas chromatography and Gas-chromatography/Mass-spectrometry analysis was carried out. Agar disc diffusion method was also employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the oil.

Results: A total of fifteen phytochemical constituents were identified. The major constituents of the oil were found to be 1, 8-cineole (76.9%) and α-terpineol (15.3%) of the total composition. The In vitro antibacterial activity of the oil against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited significant growth inhibition. The highest zone of inhibition was obsreved against Salmonella typhi (27.93±2.10 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23.83±2.75 mm) at tested dose of 50 mg/ml while the positive control Gentamycine at the same dose showed inhibition zone of (15.00±1.33 mm) and (13.25±1.25 mm) respectively. 

Conclusion: Essential oil of Ethiopian Callistemon citrinus is reach of biologically active ingredients and posses potent antibacterial activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioration of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Behavioural Perturbations by Noni Juice in Mice: Possible Involvement of Antioxidant System

Benneth Ben-Azu, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Olusegun Adebayo Adeoluwa, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Solomon Umukoro, Ezekiel O. Iwalewa, Daniel Ejebe, Jeremiah John Oloche, Aya-Ebi Okubo Eneni, Omoye Eranga

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29368

Aims: Noni juice is a natural herbal formulation containing Morinda citrifolia widely acclaimed as an immune system stimulant and mood enhancer. The aim of the study was to explore the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behavioural effects of Noni ­­juice and to further evaluate the possible mechanisms of action in terms of biomarkers of oxidative stress on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive model in mice.

Methods: CUMS was used to induce behavioural deficits (depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours) and oxidative imbalance in mice. Mice were pretreated with Noni juice (2.5, 5 and 10 mL/kg, p.o) and thereafter subjected to different stress paradigms daily for a period of 21 days. Thereafter, sucrose preference test, behavioural despair tests, open field exploratory behaviour, Y-maze test as well as elevated plus maze, and light and dark maze tests were used to assess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behaviours, while standard biochemical protocols were used to assay for the biochemical alterations [Glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA)].

Results: The results showed that Noni ­­juice demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of CUMS induced depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours in mice; by increasing the preference for sucrose, locomotor activity in the open field exploratory test, memory performance, decrease immobility in the behavioural despair tests and anxiety-related depressive behaviours. Furthermore, Noni ­­juice decreased MDA concentration (33.2, 58.7 and 70.2%) in a dose-related manner. Moreover, Noni ­­juice significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the decrease in SOD and CAT activities, and increased GSH concentration in brain tissues.

Conclusion: These data provides a rationale for evaluating Noni juice as a novel psychotropic agent against depressive- and anxiety-related behaviours and suggest that its mechanisms of action may be related to the modulation of endogenous antioxidant defense system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organic Extracts of Pelargonium graveolens: Phenol Content, Anti-oxidant and Anti-bacterial Activities

Saraswathi Sompaga, B. Arun Jyothi, Sudhakar Chekuri, Nirmala Baburao, Roja Rani Anupalli

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29040

Aims: The aim of this study was determination of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Pelargonium graveolens organic extracts.

Study Design: Different methods implemented for isolation and analysing of organic                               P. graveolens.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India, between March 2012 to December 2014.

Methodology: The aerial parts were extracted by solvents (ethyl acetate and methanol) by two conventional methods to screen the ideal solvent for isolation of non-volatile extracts and calculate its phenolic content yield, level of anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activity on bacterial strains.

Results: Our results show the extraction of crude from ethyl acetate and methanol by two conventional methods. Both organic extracts were shown the presence of total phenolic content 53 mg/dry mass. Methanolic maceration extract were showing highest EC50 value (115.528 ug/mL) with low antioxidant level, whereas, Soxhlet process were exhibiting lowest EC50 value (47.666 ug/mL) with higher free radical activity with the standard ascorbic acid. The Methanolic extract were exhibiting best zone of inhibition on K. pneumonia (13 mm ) than ethyl acetate extract on E. coli (12 mm) was determined at concentration 20 ug/mL. The most significant antioxidant properties were observed in Soxhlet method by negative correlation with total phenolic content. 

Conclusion: The results from this study have proven the information on the total phenolic, anti-oxidant level and anti-bacterial activity of organic extracts of P. graveolens. Further studies should be performed on other strains to strengthen the research. We conclude on the value of search non-volatile compounds for the medicinal value in the health care system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Anti-oxidant Activity of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Kenyan Ruellia lineari-bracteolata and Ruellia bignoniiflora

Christine O. Wangia, Jennifer A. Orwa, Francis W. Muregi, Patrick G. Kareru, Kipyegon Cheruiyot, Japheth Kibet

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29853

Medicinal plants play a significant role in treatment and prevention of many diseases in humans worldwide. Ruellia species belong to the family Acanthaceae and have been used widely for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative In vitro anti-oxidant activity of two Kenyan Ruellia species viz. Ruellia lineari-bracteolata (RLB) and Ruellia bignoniiflora (RBK). The plant materials were extracted with aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening according to standard procedures and anti-oxidant activity determined using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Comparative anti-oxidant activity for methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of RLB and RBK exhibited IC50 values of (2.7, 29.3, 7.2 and 24.4, 237.2, 66.4 μg/ml) respectively. Among the three extracts, methanolic extract showed better activity (2.7 μg/ml) comparable to ascorbic standard (2.1 μg/ml). Between the two Ruellia species, RLB showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in anti-oxidant activity as compared to RBK extracts. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Flavonoids and tannins are the main phytoconstituents responsible for anti-oxidant activity. In conclusion, the potent anti-oxidant activity of these plants makes them useful in development of medicinal drugs for treatment and prevention of degenerative diseases.