Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Evaluation in Rats of PPOJ5 and ADOJ6 Herbal Remedies Used Traditionally in the Management of HIV Infection

Oloro Joseph, Kiguli James Mukasa, Nabirumbi Ritah, Tanayen Julius Kihdze, Lawrence Imanirampa, Francis Bajunirwe, Amon Agaba Ganafa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28358

The use of herbal medicine in the treatment of many ailments is on the rise. It’s a common practice in many rural communities where access to health care is poor but also in the developed world. There is however, no much attention paid to the potential toxicity of these herbal products. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of two herbal remedies; PPOJ5 and ADOJ6, being used for the management of patients with HIV. Both acute and sub-acute toxicity were evaluated using a rat model. Liver, renal and haematological parameters were measured. PPOJ5 was found slightly toxic with an estimated LD50 of 1.341 g/kg body weight and it significantly elevated lymphocyte count. ADOJ6 was safe in both acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. There is a need to evaluate the extracts of both PPOJ5 and ADOJ6 on isolated human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) to determine their safety level and possible immunostimulatory effects of PPOJ5.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Hypoglycemia Effect of Alkaloid Compounds from Oil Free Mahagony Seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

Sri Mursiti, Sabirin Matsjeh, Jumina ., Mustofa .

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18574

Aim: To study the hypoglycemia effect of alkaloid compounds (Alkaloid crude extract) from oil free mahagony seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King).

Study Design: Experiments of alkaloid compounds isolation and in vivo test for hypoglycemia effect.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample Mahagony seeds of species S. macrophylla, King obtained from Central Java concession plants between May 2013 and July 2013.

Methodology: The oil of mahagony seeds was isolated by maceration using n-hexane for 3 x 24 hours. Alkaloid compounds from oil free mahagony seeds was carried out using methanol and 10% acetic acid solutions. Test of hypoglycemia effect treated on wistar rats. Before treatment with alkaloid compounds, the rats were given no food for 24 hours. Negative control was aquadest treatment and positive control was glibenclamide treatment. The dose of testing material were 5 mg/kg.rat-wght., 10 mg/kg.rat-wght., and 20 mg/kg.rat-wght. Data collection was performed by measuring UV absorption at λ 630 nm of the blood serum at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 minutes after the treatment.

Results: The test of hypoglycemia effect was t-test in 5% significancy level, and t- table value at 2.021, showed that significant differences of blood glucose level before and after treatment with alkaloid compounds of 5 mg/kg.rat-wght and 10 mg/kg.rat-wght.

Conclusion: Alkaloid compounds had the hypoglycemia effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect and Chemical Composition of Inula viscosa from Three Different Regions of Morocco

M. Messaoudi, N. Chahmi, M. El Mzibri, S. Gmouh, S. Amzazi, L. Benbacer, M. El Hassouni

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28340

Aims: Worldwide, growing interest was given to find new cytotoxic agents that could be used in breast cancer treatment. In this context, we have planned to evaluate cytotoxic activity of Inula viscosa extracts, on two breast cancer cell lines. The plant was harvested in three different regions of Morocco; Imouzzer, Tounate and Sefrou.

Methodology: The evaluation of cytotoxicity of Inula viscosa ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the three regions was performed by measuring cell viability using the WST1 test after 72 h of exposure.

Results: The IC50 of the various tested extracts vary between 100 and 400 µg /ml. Sefrou ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts presented the best activities with IC50 values of 195.42 µg/ml and 112.20 µg/ml, respectively. Chemical analysis of tested extracts showed that the composition of Inula viscosa extracts varies by region and impact the corresponding activity. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of Inula viscosa is strongly related to the presence of tomentosine, inuviscolide and isocostic acid.

Conclusion: These preliminary results provide evidence that Inula viscosa induces a significant cytotoxic effect on both human cancer cell line, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. This cytotoxic activity could be attributed to the presence and the concentration of tomentosine, inuviscolide and isocostic acid.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal and Cytotoxicity Activity of Plants Used as Herbal Teas in Tanzania

Okumu Ochanga, Musa Chacha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29475


Aim: The current study was designed to determine antifungal and cytotoxicity activity of            Rhus vulgaris, Sphaeranthus bullatus, Osyris lanceolata, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Acacia nilotica and Tylosema fassoglensis used as herbal teas in Tanzania.

Study Design: In vitro antifungal assay and brine shrimp lethality test for cytotoxicity study.

Methodology: Broth dilution using 96-well micro dilution method was used in antifungal assay. Extracts were loaded in the wells of the first row, followed by serial dilution and 50 μl of the fungal suspensions (0.5 MacFarland standard turbidity) were added in each well. The first concentration which showed no fungal growth was considered as Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC). On the other hands Brine shrimp lethality test were employed to determine cytotoxicty activity. Ten brine shrimp were added to vials contains different concentration (240, 120, 80, 40, 24 and 8 μg/mL) of the extracts dissolved in DMSO. Each concentration was tested in duplicate to establish the number of surviving brine shrimp.

Results: Antifungal activity was demonstrated by all extract with the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value range from 1.56 mg/mL – 25 mg/mL against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The later fungus was susceptible to extracts tested compared to the former. Of the all extract tested 18% were non toxic against Artemia salina with lethal concentration (LC50) value above 100 μg/mL. The highest cytotoxicity was exhibited by Acacia nilotica ethyl acetate root extract with LC50 0.57 μg/mL.

Conclusion: Results of this study showed that extracts tested demonstrate moderate to weak antifungal activity and strong to weak cytotoxicity effects. Further study is required on these plant extracts to characterize bioactive compounds responsible for observed activities. Moreover, further toxicological studies are required in order to establish these plants as herbal teas which can be used for both refreshment and management of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Preliminary Ethno-medical Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Management of Cancer and Related Diseases amongst Tarok People of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria

D. G. Dafam, A. Agunu, H. Ibrahim, U. Ajima, T. L. Ohemu, V. A. Okwori, D. C. Kagaru, N. Ilyas

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/29281

Aim of the Study: To document medicinal plant used in the treatment of cancer and related diseases amongst Tarok people of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria.

Study Design: Ethno medical survey and medicinal plant documentation.

Place and Duration of Study: Tarok community of Plateau State, North-central Nigeria from March, 2013 - November, 2013.

Materials and Methods: This ethno medical survey was carried among the Tarok community to find out their traditional and cultural way of maintaining well-being especially in combating cancer and related diseases. It was observed that the ethno community uses plant recipes and other natural products to meet their healthcare needs. In this study, the target population includes, Traditional medicine practitioners (TMP), herbalist, informants, (young and adults), herb sellers and indigenes with knowledge base on medicinal plants used in the treatment of cancer. A structured questionnaire and a one on one direct interview method was adapted to tape recorder and a video camera were used.

Results: The results showed that 33 medicinal plants, representing 21 families were used. It also shows that the recipes made were mostly plants parts combination with the stem barks and stem bark/leaves combination were more often used (18.4% and 10.5% respectively). The used of root part alone amongst the Tarok people in cancer and related diseases was rated 15.8%. The major observable routes of administration were oral and topical application because cancer goes with tumour/wound, inflammation and pains which is the basis for topical application of some of the crude powder for treating the related conditions.

Conclusion: This study led to proper documentation of medicinal plant used in the treatment of cancer and related diseases for the first time amongst the Tarok people. These findings can also lead to the discovery of new, safe and effective anticancer drug.

Open Access Review Article

Importance of Some Bangladeshi Ethnomedicinal Plants: A Review

Md. Ahmed Hossain, Md. Abdul Latif, Biddut Chandra Sarker, Nasreen Jahan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22230

This review article was conducted to identify the effective ethnomedicinal plants on different diseases in the traditional culture of different regions across Bangladesh. Plants are very crucial to the human being not only for the uses in health-care, but plants are also used for various other purposes such as sources of new pharmaceuticals. Ethnomedicinal plants have been used since a long time for human healthcare and most widely used for medication system in developing and least developing countries. People of different communities in Bangladesh use medicinal plants and rely on ethnomedicine because of cost-effectiveness, acceptability, biomedical benefits and less or no side-effects. It is very likely that these phytochemicals will find their way into the arsenal of antimicrobial drugs prescribed by physicians. People in Bangladesh are becoming concerned with the over-prescription and misuse of allopathic antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance is increasing simultaneously in this regard. Ethnomedicine can be used as alternatives to traditional antibiotics, hence, can overcome the problems of antibiotics.