Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Lead Ions Concentration in Amaranthus palmeri and Brassica oleraceae Acephala Plants Extracts

Kemboi Douglas

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28656

Background: In recent times there has been a pronounced interest in plants and their derived phytochemicals as food source for many population in the world. Amaranthus palmeri and Brassica olearaceae Acephale are some such commonly consumed vegetable by many households in Kenya. They are known to possess potent bioactive components, but there consumption has remained a preservative for low income earners in rural areas as opposed to urban population. In some areas their leaves are often neglected or discarded and used as fodder.

Aim: The aim of the research was to analyze the presence of different phytochemicals and the concentration of lead metal ions of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus palmeri and Brassica oleraceae Acephala.

Methodology: Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICPE 9000) was used to determine the levels of lead metals. Phytochemical screening was done using a standard procedure.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the commonly encountered phytochemical constituents in the leaf extracts of the Amaranthus palmeri and Brassica olearaceae acephale species which included flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and tannins. Lead concentration ranged from 13.00 ± 2.00 mg/kg to 52.33± 1.76 mg/kg in the roots, 12.33 ± 1.80 mg/kg to 49.33 ± 1.22 mg/kg in the stem and 45.33 ± 1.76 mg/kg to 71.67 ± 1.86 mg/kg in the leaves.

Conclusion: Since the heavy metal analyzed was above the permissible levels, there is a n indication of heavy metal contamination of this plants which are used as vegetables in Kericho. This may pose a serious health hazard to the consumers of these vegetables in the County. Therefore, policy makers and health practioners should provide legislation on the use of chemicals that releases heavy metals into the environment. Public awareness and education should also be carried out with the aim of reducing exposure of heavy metals to the vegetables and soils to avoid health hazards that may arise from contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ginkgetin or Isoginkgetin: The Dimethylamentoflavone of Dioon edule Lindl. Leaves

Abeer Moawad, Dalia El Amir

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28560

Aims: Phytochemical study of the biflavonoid content of Dioon edule Lindl. leaves in addition to quantification of the phenolic content and evaluation of their antioxidant potential.

Methodology: Chromatographic isolation of the total alcohol extract of the leaves followed by the spectroscopic identification of the isolated compounds was performed adopting 1D, 2D NMR techniques. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was measured by complexation with aluminum chloride and the antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay.

Results: Phytochemical investigation of Dioon edule Lindl. leaves afforded the isolation of 7,4′,7″,4″′-tetramethylamentoflavone (1), 4′,4″′-dimethylamentoflavone (isoginkgetin) (2) biolbetin (3) and amentoflavone (4) in addition to β-sitosterol (5). A more accurate assignment of 13C-NMR data of the methylated amentoflavone derivatives is performed using 2D NMR (HMQC and HMBC). Compounds 2 and 5 are reported for the first time in Dioon edule Lindl. leaves. Previous report on D. edule Lindl. leaves afforded the isolation of ginkgetin (6) as a dimethylamentoflavone but our investigation proved that it is isoginkgetin. The TPC was 0.27±0.01 gallic acid equivalents in mg/g plant material. The TFC was 1.8473±0.077 rutin equivalents in mg/g plant material. The plant exhibited a good antioxidant property as DPPH scavenging activity was 3.29±0.251 mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity in 1 g plant material.

Conclusion: The phytochemical study of D. edule Lindl. leaves afforded isoginkgetin instead of the previously reported ginkgetin. The use of NMR provides the most powerful tool for a more accurate assignment of biflavonoids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrography (GC/MS) Analysis and Biological Properties of Probiotic Fermented Solenostemma argel

Sawsan M. El-Sonbaty, Somaya Z. Mansour, El-Sayed M. E. Mahdy, Hatem A. El-Mezayen, Fatma Abdel-Fattah M. Salem

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/27662

Solenostemma argel (S. argel) is an important medicinal plant in Egypt and Sudan, with antitumor effects. This study objective to elucidate the chemometric profile and antitumor properties of           S. argel extract and the effect of fermentation on its properties. S. argel was fermented by two probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. While fermentation reduced total phenolics, and total flavonoid contents as well as DPPH radical scavenging activity, it enhanced antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell. The GC/MS analysis of fermented and non-fermented S. argel revealed the formation of new compounds of known antitumor activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Allergic Action of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Mice

Akinori Hagiwara, Muneaki Hidaka, Shiro Takeda, Hiroki Yoshida, Hisahiro Kai, Chihiro Sugita, Wataru Watanabe, Masahiko Kurokawa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28566

Aims: The present investigation aimed to evaluate anti-allergic activity of an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves (AqMOL) in three type I allergy models in mice. 

Study Design: Anti-allergic assay of AqMOL was performed using three type I allergy models in mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Clinical Pharmacy, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Japan, from April 2014 to March 2015.

Methodology: AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to mice three times daily from two days before treatments in compound 48/80 (48/80) stimulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction models, and scratching frequencies and Evans blue levels in the ears, respectively, after treatments were measured. In an ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model, AqMOL was continuously ingested ad libitum by mice from day 0 to day 45, and scratching frequencies of OVA-sensitized mice were measured after an intranasal OVA challenge. Histamine and total and OVA-specific IgE levels in the sera were also measured.

Results: AqMOL significantly reduced scratching frequencies in the 48/80 stimulation and OVA sensitization models.  In the PCA reaction model, AqMOL reduced Evans blue levels in the ears of mice after specific IgE injection, although not statistically significantly. In OVA-sensitized mice, AqMOL significantly reduced OVA-specific IgE levels in the serum, but histamine and total IgE levels were not significantly affected by AqMOL administration.

Conclusion: AqMOL was suggested to alleviate allergic symptoms through suppression of mast cell activation and/or improving the Th1/Th2 balance to Th1 dominance in allergic mice. The elucidation of mode of anti-allergy action of AqMOL may provide new insights into the usage of AqMOL as a functional food for the alleviation of type 1 allergy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity and a New Ursane-type Triterpene from Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotaceae) Stem Barks

Emmanuel Talla, Jean Noël Nyemb, Alembert Tchinda Tiabou, Sandrine Gael Zambou Djou, Pierre Biyanzi, Laurent Sophie, Joseph Mbafor Tanyi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28847

Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total phenolics and flavonoids content of stem barks of Vitellaria paradoxa C. F. Gaertn., and identify its main chemical constituents.

Methodology: V. paradoxa stem barks were extracted by maceration with methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed on the crude methanol extract (CME). Besides, total polyphenols contents (TPC) and total flavonoids contents (TFC) contents were also evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and complexation with aluminum chloride respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FIC (ferrous ion chelating) assays. Chromatographic isolation of the crude methanol extract (CME) followed by the spectroscopic identification of the isolated compounds was performed adopting 1D NMR and MS techniques.

Results: All the compounds tested were found to be present in the CME of V. paradoxa stem barks. The extract was found to be rich in phenolics (18.48 ± 1.43 mgGAE.g-1) and flavonoids (3.98 ± 0.44 mgGAE.g-1). The CME showed high antioxidant activity as DPPH free radical scavenging and a low FIC activity. A new ursane type-triterpenoid named vitellaric acid (4) along with four known compounds (+)-catechin (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), betulinic acid (3a), and bassic acid (3b) were isolated from CME.

Conclusion: The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals which could be used as medical regimens. The study provides scientific evidence for the use of V. paradoxa stem barks for the treatment of diseases mainly those associated with oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species. Results yield a new addition to the chemical literature of V. paradoxa, in addition it increases the importance of NMR and MS techniques in structure elucidation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Ovicidal, Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activity of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil against Anopheles gambiae. (Diptera: Culicidae)

Foko Dadji Gisèle Aurelie, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Tsila Henri Gabriel, Awono Ambene Parfait Herman, Ndong Massouka Pauline, Tamesse Joseph Lebel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28832

Background: Malaria remains a serious Public Health issue in the sub-Saharan regions. Although Anopheles gambiae (main malaria vector) has developed resistance against commonly used insecticides, the emergence of this resistance as well as the pollution of the environment by these chemicals have led to the use of plant-derived products such as essential oils.

Aim: This study aimed to characterize and investigate in laboratory bioassays the ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activities of Ocimum basilicum essential oil against aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Cameroon.

Methods: Essential oils of O. basilicum fresh leaves were extracted by hydrodistillation, characterized by gas chromatography coupling mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested against         An. gambiae eggs, larvae and pupal stages in laboratory bioassays.

Results: With an overall yield of 0.31% (w/w), the essential oil of O. basilicum fresh leaves revealed the presence of 29 compounds by GC-MS. Monoterpenes were the main group of compounds found with 1-8 Cineol (33.9%), β-Pinene 16.09%), Terpineol (11.21%) and α-Pinene (5.65%) as the main ingredients. These compounds demonstrated an efficient toxic effect against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae with no egg hatching after 24 hours exposure at >30 ppm. The LC50 values of the essential oil were respectively obtained one hour and 24 hours post-exposure for first (29.41 and 24.7 ppm), second (34.7 and 17.6 ppm), third (34.7 and 20 ppm) and fourth (45.29 and 23.5 ppm) instars larvae and the pupal stage (45.88 and 36.47 ppm) of An. gambiae.

Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum demonstrated a good efficacy against the aquatic stages of An. gambiae and could be suitable for use in mosquito control programme for a Public Health purposes.