Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Cytotoxic Effects and Antibacterial Activity of Moroccan Medicinal Plants Aristolochia longa and Lavandula multifida

M’hamed Aneb, Ahmed Talbaoui, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Houria EL Boury, Saaïd Amzazi, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Nadia Dakka, Youssef Bakri

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28534

Aims: The aim of this study was the evaluation of in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of organic extracts from Aristolochia longa and Lavandula multifida.

Study Design: Evaluation of in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology (Faculty of Sciences), between July 2007 and July 2008.

Methodology: The aerial parts were extracted by organic solvents (hexane, dichloromethane and methanol). The antibacterial activity of extracts was tested against Rhodococcus strains using the agar well diffusion method and cytotoxic activity was evaluated against three cancerous cell lines using the MTT assay. The chemical composition of extracts was determined using GC-MS.

Results: The results show that the hexanic extract of A. longa (AH) and the dichloromethanic extract of A. longa (AD) present a good inhibitory effect on the three cancerous cell growth with 15 µg/ml≤IC50≤ 250 µg/ml and a total inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth with inhibition zone 30 mm at 50 mg/ml. Whereas, the extracts of L. multifida present less important inhibiting effects on the cell growth, in particular hexanic extract of L. multifida (LH)  and dichloromethanic extract of    L. multifida (LD) with 115 µg/ml≤IC50≤ 300 µg/ml. These extracts are also active against the three strains of Rhodococcus, with more than 20 mm rings of inhibition at 50 mg/ml. The study of the chemical composition of each these species was undertaken by means of GC-MS. The phytochemical analysis of the extracts studied showed the presence of many chemical compounds which can explain these biological activities. These preliminary results suggest the presence in the extracts of compounds such as linoleic acid chloride; oleic acid and limonene-6-ol, pivalate for       A. longa, and methyl linolenate; octadecane; oleic acid; 2,3,5,8-tetramethyldecane, phenol, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl) for L. multifida.

Conclusion: This study deserves to be pursued to characterize better the asset compounds and to clarify their mechanism of action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuropharmacological Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Cola millenii Dried Leaf in Rats

Idris Ajayi Oyemitan, Fatimat Kolawole, Luqman Abass, Adebola Omowumi Oyedeji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28718

Objective: The leaf of Cola millenii is used in ethnomedicine to treat several ailments including; infections, fever and pain among several other diseases in Southwest Nigeria. Preliminary report indicates that the ethanolic leaf extract of this plant exhibits some central nervous system (CNS) activities; hence, this study investigated the acute toxicity and some central effects of the ethanolic dried leaf extract of C. millenii in rats.

Materials and Methods: Ethanolic dried leaf extract of C. millenii (CME) was obtained by soaking dried powdered leaf of the plant in 70% ethanol for 72 h and the filtrates recovered was dried in vacuo. The extract was tested for acute toxicity (LD50) through the oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes; dose-dependently evaluated for novelty-induced behavioural activities, sedative and anticonvulsant activities in rats. Diazepam (1-2 mg/kg, i.p.) and 5% Tween 80 served as positive and negative control groups respectively (n=5).

Results and Discussion: LD50 values obtained were 5000 mg/kg, p.o., and 2154 mg/kg, i.p. The CME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p<0.05-0.01) reduced rearing, grooming, locomotion and head-dips dose-dependently compared to the vehicle, signifying CNS depression; significantly (p<0.05) reduced sleep latency and prolonged total sleeping time on the ketamine-induced hypnosis indicating sedative activity; prolonged the latency to convulsion, delayed time of death and offered between 20-40 percent protections against the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, suggesting anti-convulsant potentials.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the ethanolic dried leaf extract of C. millenii is non-toxic orally but slightly toxic intraperitoneally; demonstrated significant depression of the CNS, possess sedative and anticonvulsant activities in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Clerodendrum splendens on HaCaT Keratinocytes

Emelia Oppong Bekoe, Christian Agyare, Samuel Bekoe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/27067

Clerodendrum splendens G. Don (Family Verbenaceae) has been used for centuries to treat various medicinal problems in Africa, including the treatment of wounds and other skin conditions. Though several studies have been conducted on the biological activities of this plant, none so far determines the effect of the leaves extract of C. splendens on skin cells and hence predicting its toxicity. This research aims at investigating the in vitro physiological effect of the aqueous extract of C. splendens on human adult low calcium high temperature keratinocytes (HaCaT). Keratinocytes are the main cells of the skin epidermis and any agent used for the treatment of skin conditions will first come in contact with these cells. The functional activities of the aqueous extract of                  C. splendens were investigated by determining effect on the cellular metabolic activity, proliferation and necrotic cytotoxicity by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays respectively. The HPLC finger print chromatogram was also developed for quality control. There was no significant effect on the metabolic activity, rate of proliferation as well as LDH leakage from the HaCaT cells. According to these results, the aqueous extract of C. splendens did not show toxicity over the tested concentrations of the extract. The extract showed a tendency towards increased proliferation and viability at low concentrations of 0.1 and 1 µg/mL.

The positive effect at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL seems to suggest the absence of toxicity at those concentrations but a decrease in metabolic activity and proliferation at higher concentrations could be a dose dependent cytotoxic effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostic Studies of the Leaf of Senna siamea (lam.) Irwin & Barneby Family: Caesalpiniaceae

K. B. Esievo, O. T. Fatokun, J. A. Ibrahim, O. F. Kunle

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28586

Aims: To establish pharmacognostic standard for S. siamea and provide chromatographic fingerprints with a view to assisting in the quality control of medicinal products from the plant.

Study Design: Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of Senna siamea.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacognosy laboratory, department of medicinal plant research and traditional medicine, national institute for pharmaceutical research and development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria.

Methodology: Chemomicroscopic evaluation and determination of physicochemical properties (moisture content, ash values, extractive values) of the powdered leaves, macroscopy and microscopy of anatomical sections of the leaf were carried out using standard procedures.

Results: Evaluation of the macro and microscopic characters showed that the leaves are dark green, simple and entire. The leaf epidermis is polygonal, has paracytic stomata on the lower surface and uniseriate trichomes. Quantitative leaf analysis revealed stomatal number (464.7), stomatal index (38.23), palisade ratio (4.48), vein islet number (21.71) and vein termination number (20.71). Chemomicroscopic characters present include lignins, tannins, mucilage and oils. The physicochemical parameters evaluated are: Moisture content 7.33%, total ash 6.46%, acid-insoluble ash 5.32%, sulphated ash 8.47%, water-soluble ash 1.87%, alcohol-soluble extractive 5.12% and water-soluble extractive 16.71%. Chromatographic fingerprints of ethanol (70%) extract showed major spots at Rf = 0.74 daylight (yellow), UV366 (fluorescent), spray reagent (brown);       Rf = 0.91 daylight (green), UV366 (red), spray reagent (brown).

Conclusion: The results from this study have provided information on the morphological, anatomical features and physicochemical parameters of the leaf of Senna siamea. The findings from this study will be useful towards establishing standards which can be included in official monograph of the plant for its proper identification and quality control.

Open Access Original Research Article

2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Effect and Phytochemical Constituents of Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex. M. A. Lawson subsp. oatesii (Rolfe) Exell Leaf

S. D. Umoh, B. B. Samuel, O. Adaramoye, E. E. Essien

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25524

Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant properties of Combretum platypetalum leaf.

Study Design: In vitro assessment of antioxidant properties and determination of the phytochemical constituents of C. platypetalum leaf extracts.

Site and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan; Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, and University of Agriculture, Makurdi (August 2013 –February 2015).

Methodology: Phytochemical constituents of the hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts were determined following established methods. The extracts were investigated for their antioxidant properties using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content assay models.

Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones in the leaf extract. The methanol fraction contained the highest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids (1289.76 and 517.97 µg Catechin equivalent /g of extract respectively). The phenolics content of the extracts also correlated with the observed significant in vitro antioxidant effects. The highest DPPH free radical inhibition for catechin, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone extracts and methanol extracts were observed at 90.41±0.05% at 2000 μg/mL, 20.60±12.38% at 750 μg/mL, 6.73±6.32% at 2000 μg/mL, 25.28±1.46% at 2000 μg/mL and 25.98±1.93%  at 250 μg /mL respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study substantiate the high phenolics content and free radical scavenging effect of C. platypetalum leaf extract and validate the claims for its traditional uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nasal Snuff (Nigeria Local Smokeless Tobacco) Administration Raises Hepatic Enzyme Plasma Levels in Wistar Rats

Theresa Chioma Ugwu, Jonah Sydney Aprioku

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/28215

Aims: Smokeless tobacco (ST) is commonly used in many countries and is considered as alternative to tobacco smoke (TS) in view of the increasing awareness of the hazardous effects of TS. This study investigated the effects of 30 days oral administration of Nasal Snuff, a local ST in Nigeria (≈ 0.5 or 1 mg/kg nicotine) on liver function in prepubertal and adult rats, in comparison with nicotine.

Place and Duration Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria; between February and April, 2014.

Methodology: Rats were divided into 10 groups (5 groups for prepubertal and 5 groups for adult), and each group contained six animals. Prepubertal and adult rats were given Nasal Snuff, a local ST product (≈ 0.5 or 1 mg/kg nicotine, p.o.), nicotine (0.5 or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) or distilled water (control). At the end of 30 days of daily treatment, the rats were sacrificed and plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) were measured. Histological analysis of the livers of animals was also done.

Results: ST had no effect on ALP, but caused elevations in plasma levels of AST, ALT and ACP in prepubertal rats, producing 126.8, 602.9 and 193.2% increases, respectively. ST also increased AST (122.7%) and ALT (169%) in the adult rats. Nicotine did not cause changes in ALP and ACP levels, but increased AST and ALT in prepubertal (159.4 and 275.6%, respectively) and adult rats (137.1 and 496.7%, respectively). ST and nicotine caused comparable cytoplasmic degeneration of liver microstructure in prepubertal and adult rats.

Conclusion: ST, particularly at high dose levels, poses potential danger of hepatotoxicity in young and adult animals.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Potential of Withania somnifera in CNS Disorders: A Neuropharmacological Review

Rakesh Kumar Ruhela, Shringika Soni, Bikash Medhi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24187

Context: According to Ayurveda, the oldest and the first documented system of medicine in the world defines medicinal plants as Medhya Rasayana which show properties influencing the brain tissues. Medhya Rasayana can reportedly retard brain aging and which help in different central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is one of the Medhya Rasayana and it has been shown to have medicinal properties to treat several CNS disorders.

Objective: Research in the area of alternative medicine has come up with several options to treat the disorders of CNS. However, a comprehensive review of such a potent medicinal plant; Withania somnifera in different CNS disorders has been absent till date. The present review focuses on               the effects of phytochemicals isolated from Withania somnifera on different types of central nervous system CNS disorders.

Materials and Methods: Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted on Withania somnifera, which advocates strong potential medicinal properties of this plant. We reviewed the MEDLINE database to identify experimental studies conducted using Withania somnifera in several CNS disorders.

Results: Our present study shows that Withania somnifera has a very potent role in the treatment of CNS disorders i.e. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Epilepsy, Anxiety, OCD, Hypoxia, Huntington's disease, Catalepsy and Bipolar disorder. Withania somnifera act on several neurotransmitters to treat these CNS disorders.

Discussion and Conclusion: Withania somnifera demonstrates remarkable potential in the amelioration of CNS disorders, with anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects.