Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Induced Ripening on the Proximate, Biochemical and Mineral Compositions of Carica papaya (Pawpaw Fruit)

Chisom F. Iroka, Esther E. Akachukwu, Ruffina N. Adimonyemma, Nkumah C. Okereke, Cletus O. Nwogiji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26260

The effects of ripening acceleration methods on the proximate, biochemical and mineral compositions of Carica papaya (Pawpaw) was carried out. A total of eighteen fruits were collected, three for each replica of the five treatments and then the three control replica. The fruits were cleaned and taken to the laboratory for further treatments. Each replica of the fruits was subjected to the following treatments respectively: Dipped into a Calcium carbide solution for about 60 secs; soaked in hot water (100°C) for 15 mins; placed on dried plantain leaves which were also spread over it to completely cover it; and then smoked for two days to induce ripening; the last replica was put in a Polythene bag and was tied for three to four days to accelerate ripening. The control pawpaw fruits were left in the open at room temperature without any treatment whatsoever and allowed to undergo natural ripening which took about five to six days. The fruit samples were washed and peeled, the fruits were sliced and the slices were used for the various analyses. The result of the study showed that hot water treatment gave higher percentage of moisture (90.840±0.100); the control gave higher dry matter (14.680±0.113) and carbohydrate (13.435±0.134), while smoke treatment gave higher vitamin C (46.520±0.255), phosphorus (16.810±0.014), calcium (33.625±0.247), magnesium (13.625±0.247) iron (0.850±0.014) and sodium (9.525±0.106). And then poly bag treatment gave higher TTA (0.160±0.011), Plantain leaf treatment gave higher pH (5.060±0.068), reducing sugar (27.960±0.23) and Vitamin C (43.795±0.4). While calcium carbide treatment gave higher potassium composition (24.780±0.028). There was significant difference in the percentage composition of moisture content, dry matter, ash, crude fibre, ether extract, crude protein and carbohydrate of the pawpaw fruit between fruit ripening (p<0.05). There is also significant difference in the TTA, pH, vitamin C of the pawpaw fruit between treatment (p<0.05). There is significant difference in the composition of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sodium of the pawpaw fruit between treatments (p<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethylacetate Extract of Mitracarpus villosus Leaves in Rodents

Lucy Binda John-Africa, Nuhu Mohammed Danjuma, Joseph Akpojo Anuka, Ben Ahmed Chindo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26355

Aims: To investigate the effects of the ethylacetate extract of Mitracarpus villosus leaves using various in-vivo models of pain, inflammation and pyrexia.

Study Design: This study was designed to investigate the possible analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects of ethylacetate extract of Mitracarpus villosus leaves in rodents.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Idu Industrial Area, Abuja, Nigeria; between September 2013 and February 2014.

Methodology: The effects of the extract on centrally and peripherally mediated pain were investigated in albino mice and Wistar rats. The anti-nociceptive effects of the extract were tested on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, oro-facial formalin-induced pain in mice and carageenaan–induced hyperalgesia in rats. The effects of the extract on inflammation and body temperature were determined using formalin induced paw oedema and Baker’s yeast induced pyrexia respectively.

Results: The extract at 100 – 400 mg/kg significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and dose-dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, decreased the time of face rubbing induced by formalin and increased the withdrawal threshold of rat paws injected with carageenaan to induced hyperalgesia. At 400 mg/kg, paw thickness induced by formalin was significantly reduced when compared to control. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract are comparable to pentazocine and diclofenac. Hyperthermia induced by Baker’s yeast was significantly reversed by the extract in a manner similar to paracetamol.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the ethylacetate extract of Mitracarpus villosus leaves may contain biologically active principles with potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects; thus supporting its use as a phytomedicine and buttressing the need for the isolation and identification of the biologically active constituent(s) of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Citrullus lanatus Rind and Juice Extracts as Probable Therapeutics in the Prevention and Management of Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Oluwafisayo Lydia Olorunnisola

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25701

Introduction: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) afflicts about 90% of men in the 9th decade of life. Its management could pose socio-economic challenges. Citrullus lanatus is widely cultivated and known to have antioxidant properties that could impact positively on the management of BPH.

Aim: The ameliorative effect of the rind and juice of Citrullus lanatus in induced BPH in Wistar rats was investigated.

Methodology: Forty adult male Wistar rats in eight equal groups were used for the experiment. The normal control group was NC while the BPH induced but untreated group was CI. The aqueous rind concomitant (ARC) and ethanolic rind concomitant (ERC) groups had administration of the respective extract of the rind simultaneously with the induction of BPH. The aqueous rind post-induction (ARP), ethanolic rind post-induction (ERP) and juice post- induction (JP) groups had respective extract after induction of BPH. The last group was juice concomitant (JC). Upon conclusion of the study, the animals were ethically sacrificed; the prostate glands harvested for measurement, histological analysis and oxidative stress evaluation {superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthatione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA)}.

Results: The CI group had significantly higher mean prostate weight than groups NC, ARP and ERP (P< 0.05). The respective activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in ARC, ERC, JC, ARP, ERP and JP were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than in CI. The MDA concentrations were significantly                (P< 0.05) lower in ARC, ERP and JP than CI.

Histology of the JC prostate gland showed non-hyperplasia.

Conclusion: The study showed that the rind and juice of Citrullus lanatus reduced the enlarged prostate gland, ameliorated the associated oxidative stress and restored the altered picture of the prostate in induced BPH. Thus Citrullus lanatus may be of medicinal relevance in the prevention and management of BPH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Chemical Variability and Phytochemical Analysis among Indian Germplasm of Acorus calamus Linn Using GC- MS and FTIR

Avani Kasture, R. Krishnamurthy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25774

The present study was carried out to characterize the bioactive constituents present in essential oil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrophotometer and Gas Chromatography –Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) and evaluation of chemical variability in twenty accessions of Acorus calamus,  collected from India, and data collected were subjected to principle component analysis. The essential oils were scanned and FTIR analysis indicated the presence of groups such as - C – H stretching,  Aldehydic – C – H stretching,  Benzene C = C stretching, C – O stretching, Tetra substituted benzene. The GC-MS analysis results revealed the presence of four different compounds namely β-asarone, α-asarone, shyobunone and epicedrol. The main compound observed in all the accessions was β-asarone. Principal component analysis revealed that the first three principal components accounted for 47.80% of the total variation among the accessions. The first component had high positive loadings from epicedrol (0.925), shyobunone (0.659) and α-asarone (0.591) and high negative loadings from β-asarone (-0.953). Most of the variation was accounted for by the first principal component (20.97%). The dendogram generated by the UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the twenty accessions into two distinct clusters. The study indicated that there is moderate phytochemical variation within the population evaluated. Chemical compositions were moderately influenced by factors such as plant origins, soil and geographical region, medicinal parts, and storage environment. Hence, this study proposes a base of using A. calamus as herbal alternative for the synthesis of various therapeutic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Safety Profile of the Leaves of Gutenbergia nigritana Benth

B. T. Aluko

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26828

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of aqueous extract of Gutenbergia nigritana leaves in Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Between July and September, 2014.

Methodology: The sub chronic toxicity experiment was conducted on the extract. Graded doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of the extract was administered orally to the rats on a daily basis for a period of 28 days. The animals were observed daily for signs of toxicity and mortality. Thereafter, alterations in the haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and some marker enzymes were then evaluated.

Results: The administration of the extract did not result in mortality of the rats at the tested doses and duration. There were no significant alterations in the levels of packed cell volume (PCV), heamoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. However, there was a reduction in the concentration of red blood cells (RBC) at 200 mg/kg. The administration of aqueous extract of            G. nigritana leaves resulted in significance increase the levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The triglycerides level reduced whereas that of high density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unaltered. The activities of aminotransferases were increased while that of alkaline phosphatase reduced. There was no significant alteration in the activity of acid phosphatase throughout the experimental period.

Conclusion: Sub chronic administration of G nigritana leaf extract may predispose animals to cardiovascular risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanol Root Bark Extract of Salacia lehmbachii Loes on Male Reproductive Hormones in Albino Rats

Grace A. Essiet, Augustine D. Essien, Godwin C. Akuodor, Francis V. Udoh, Akanimo Essiet

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26358

Aims: Salacia lehmbachii Loes is a herb found commonly in Southeastern Nigeria where it is used by the locals for the treatment of many ailments especially malaria and the Nigerian population has a relatively large youth segment. This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of S. lehmbachii root bark on reproductive hormones in sexually mature male Albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria; between September, 2015 and November, 2015.

Methodology: The extract was derived from Soxhlet extraction of petroleum ether-defatted plant powder using ethanol. Twenty four mature male rats weighing between 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6), labeled 1 to 4. The animals in group 1 (Control) had 2 mL of distilled water, the vehicle for the extract while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 received 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. Administration was orally via a gastric cannula and daily between 9 to 10 am for six weeks. At the end of the experimentation period, rats were anaesthetized in a chloroform fume cupboard and blood collected by cardiac puncture into plain sample bottles. The blood samples were allowed to clot for 2 hours and the clotted blood centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes to obtain sera which were used to determine the concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, progesterone and estradiol using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique.

Results: There was a significant (P<.05) reduction dose dependently in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and progesterone in treated rats compared to control while estradiol levels were increased.

Conclusion: The ethanol root bark extract of S. lehmbachii depresses male reproductive hormones and thus may impair male fertility in albino rats.