Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical and Proximate Analyses of Methanol Leaf Extract of Neem Azadirachta indica

F. M. Madaki, A. Y. Kabiru, M. T. Bakare-Odunola, S. C. Mailafiya, R. U. Hamzah, Janet Edward

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25191

Aims: To determine the phytochemical content, proximate and mineral analysis of neem leaves. Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Bosso Campus, Niger State. from March 2013 to July, 2013.

Methodology: Reflux extraction was carried out using 70% methanol as extraction solvent standard analytical methods were used to determined the phytochemical content and AOAC official method was used to determined the proximate and mineral contents.

Results: The result of the phytochemical screening of methanol leaf extract indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids, flavonoid, alkaloids, tannin, phenol, terpene, and reducing sugar while athraquinone and carbohydrate were absent.

The proximate analysis of Neem leaves showed the following result; moisture% 9.50±0.24, ash content 2.81±0.21, protein% 1.58±0.34, fat% 2.07±0.35, fibre% 5.92±0.47, carbohydrate% 78.12±0.35, Vitamin A (mg/100 g) 180±0.10 and Vitamin C (mg/100 g) 287±6.22.

The result of mineral analysis shows that neem leaves contains potassium 235.65±5.05, calcium 170.05±10.12, sodium 180.65±8.83 and phosphorus 39.34±3.25.

Conclusion: It can be deduced from these results of this study that neem leaves contained appreciable amount of phytochemicals, nutrients and minerals that aid it medicinal properties.   

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico MicroRNA Identification from Stevia rebaudiana Transcriptome Assembly

Aditya Mehta, Hemant Gupta, Rakesh Rawal, Archana Mankad, Tanushree Tiwari, Maulik Patel, Arpita Ghosh

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25221

MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous, approximately 22 nucleotides in length noncoding RNA, which is evolutionary conserved and mediates post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNA play a crucial role in development of plant, cellular processes, biological processes, cell proliferation and stress response. Stevia rebaudiana is an economically important and medicinal plant of the Asteraceae family. A total of 1,418,58 unigenes from Stevia transcriptome data were used for homology search against known plant miRNA database miRBase version 21. The functionally annotated unigenes were excluded from the studies. Total 381 non-protein coding unigenes were considered for candidates of miRNA precursor in Stevia. One potential miRNA from miR168 family with secondary structure was identified through the sequel of stringent filtering criteria. The target prediction of novel miRNA was carried out for using psRNATarget program based on their sequence complementarities. A total of 31 potential gene targets were predicted for identified novel miRNA, which playing crucial role in various biological processes like development of plant, DNA repair, splicing, post-translational gene silencing, plant defense response, cell growth and proliferation. The phylogenetic analysis was also carried out to study the conserved nature of miRNA. These findings provide significant insights of miRNA and their potential role in Stevia as well as their regulatory mechanisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Membranous activity of Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticle from Aqueous Leave Extract of Nelsonia canescens

Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu, Daniel Iduh Stephen

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26377

Nano drug delivery technologies have advantages of transporting the drug to target site to better enhance its effectiveness, bioavailability and reduces side effects with dose frequency. In this study, the reducing capability of Nelsonia canescens for gold nanoparticle synthesis and its membranous activity on MCF-7 cell have been investigated. The morphology, particle size and the functional group of the bio- reducing agent of the synthesized gold nanoparticle were investigated using High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Zeta-sized nano and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The biosynthesis gold nanoparticle showed a strong surface plasmon resonance at 537.5 nm with an average size of 50nm. SEM image showed the morphology of the biosynthesized gold nanoparticle to be spherical with the possibility of aggregation. While FTIR confirms the reducing and capping agents of the synthesized gold Nanoparticle as hydroxyl group of alcohol or phenol with a strong signal at 3417.98 cm-1. The in vitro membranous activity shows concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 0.455 mg/l. Therefore, it could be concluded that Nelsonia canescens have the bioreductive capability to produce gold nanoparticle and in vitro membraneous activity on MCF-7 cell line.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaves of Aspilia africana on Clinical Isolates

O. R. Ezeigbo, D. A. Awomukwu, I. C. Ezeigbo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26481

The uses of medicinal plants for treatment of various infections in traditional communities have been an age-long practice. This provides the rationale to study medicinal plant extracts as a possible source of alternative therapy against infections. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of Aspilia africana. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts of A. africana were evaluated against eight organisms-Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp and Fusarium spp. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained by standard methods. Antimicrobial activity was conducted using a modified agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical screening and analysis carried out in this study showed that the plant extracts contains alkaloids (6.350±0.84), saponins (2.260±0.15), flavonoids (2.006±0.11), tannins (0.881±0.04) and phenols (0.109±0.02). The result showed that ethanolic extract of A. africana exerted antimicrobial effect on the test organisms at 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml concentrations, while the hot aqueous extract exerted antimicrobial effect at 100 mg/ml only on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ethanolic extract of A. Africana showed the highest antimicrobial activity with diameter of zone of inhibition of 3.35 mm to 17.9 mm at 100 mg/concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanolic extracts was at a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The antimicrobial activity of the extract could be enhanced if the components are purified. This plant therefore holds a promising potential source of new drug for treating infections caused by these clinical pathogens.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Methanol Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Seed on Serum Lipid Profile, Biochemical and Antioxidant Activity in Female Wistar Rats

Oore-Oluwapo Ololade Daramola, Wahab Adekunle Oyeyemi, Gideon Onyendilefu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26723

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of methanol extract of Telfairia occidentalis seed (METOS) on serum lipid profile, liver biochemical and antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation.

Methodology: Twenty female Wistar rats (165-200 g) were randomly grouped evenly into four and treated as follows; Group A (control), Group B, C and D were administered orally with 20, 40 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw respectively for thirty days. Serum lipid profile, liver biochemical, and antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation were analyzed.

Results: Serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and aspartate aminotransferase were reduced significantly in animals administered with 20, 40 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw compared with the control (P = 0.05), whereas, 40 and 80 mg METOS/ kg bw significantly increased serum triglyceride (mg/dl) (659.50±53.34, 652.63±29.13) and high density lipoprotein (mg/dl) (101.9±10.70, 112.00±6.40) relative to the control group (368.20±41.89), (63.3±2.82) (P = 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L) reduced significantly in 40 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw (4.10±0.37, 3.63±0.33) compared with the control (6.60±0.80), while significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) was observed in 20 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw treated groups (3.60±0.82, 3.27±0.4) compared with the control (5.72±0.78) (P = 0.05). Catalase activity level (µ/mg tissue) was statistically increased in 20 and 80 mg METOS/kg bw groups (13.13±1.21, 9.64±1.75) compared with the control (4.56±1.57) and malondialdehyde level (nM/mg tissue) increased significantly in all METOS treated groups (0.05±0.001, 0.04±0.003, 0.08±0.002) compared with the control group (0.02±0.002) (P = 0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that METOS has hypolipidemic effect which may further reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, it also has hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant activities which ameliorate its lipid peroxidation effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stimulation of Interleukin-2 [IL-2] Release by Rhizophora mangle Bark Aqueous Extracts and Its Fractions

Elizabeth de Armas, Arturo Escobar, Roberto Faure, Evangelina Marrero, Annie S. W. Bligh, Christopher J. Branford-White, Kenneth N. White

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26743

Aims: The objective of the present study was to prepare fractions of polyphenols based on their ability to stimulate release of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from a human T-cell line, Jurkat, in the presence or absence of phorbol myristic acetate (PMA), and to identify the candidate components responsible for this activity.

Study Design: Rhizophora mangle L. [Rhizophoraceae] bark was collected in occident zone of CUBA, was boiled in distilled water and freezer dried for its fractionation.

Methodology: The IL2-releasing the activity of different fractions were quantified using a BD OptEIA Human IL-2 ELISA kit using Jurkat Cells and PMA during the test. The ESI–MS fingerprints of the extracts [ESI-MS/MS] were acquired by the negative ion mode using a Micromass-Waters Q-TOF mass spectrometer.

Results: Guided fractionations from Rhizophora mangle bark aqueous extracts in the evaluation of releasing activity of interleukin 2-stimulated and unstimulated with Jurkat T cells in the presence of PMA showed that the butanolic fraction had an interleukin 2 production of 250 pg mL-1 and an 89.9% yield of procyanidins. Mass spectral studies of the butanolic fraction reflected the presence of compounds that varied between 1000-1333 m/z, indicating the presence of procyanidins up to a tetramer polymerization level linked to glycosides based on monomeric units [epicatechin / catechin]. An increase of IL-2, without prior stimulation with PMA, in the Jurkat T cell model, had not been previously reported for the phenolic compounds.

Conclusion: The compounds characterized preliminarily confirmed the structural diversity of polyphenols present in Rhizophora mangle L plant and its capacity to stimulate release of IL 2.