Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Lipid Peroxidation and Astringency Study of Hydroethanolic Root Extracts of Bergenia ligulata, Bergenia ciliata and Bergenia stracheyi

Rajani Chauhan, Km Ruby, Jaya Dwivedi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25370

Aims: Hemorrhoid is a painful disorder both physically and mentally. So in the present research article anti-hemorrhoidal activity of hydroethanolic root extract of Bergenia species namely Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia ligulata and Bergenia stracheyi were studied by antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and astringency parameters.

Methods: For this UV-spectroscopy method was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Work was done in department of Pharmacy, Banasthali University, India, July 2013-July 2015.

Methodology: To perform the antioxidant, lipid peroxidation and astringency parameters, total 3 samples of plant extract and 4 standards were selected. All samples were studied at maximum respective absorbance. IC50 value (inhibition at 50% concentration), R2 (regression value) and probability of extracts and standards were calculated at constant and different concentration. 

Results: Results showed that extracts are best free radical inhibitor at higher concentration and best mechanism to control the free radical is metal chelating activity.

Conclusion: We have successfully tried to find out solution for hemorrhoid by observing the results responsible for this. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cassia alata Linn. on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Normal and STZ Induced Diabetic Mice

Priyadarshini Laishram, Mazumder Pranab Behari, Pushparani Heisanam, Manabendra Dutta Choudhury

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24704

Aims: To check the effect of the aqueous extract of an antidiabetic plant Cassia alata Linn. on Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in glucose induced normal, and diabetic mice and to check if there is any toxic effect of the extract.

Study Design: OGTT was carried out in two main groups (normal and diabetic) of mice, with 3 sub-groups. The effect of CAAE (Cassia alata Aqueous Extract) on OGTT in normal mice group was assessed at different time intervals (0 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min and 120 min). Oral acute toxicity test of the extract was performed in three groups of mice.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Assam University, Department of Biotechnology, Assam, India, between February and August, 2014.

Methods: OGTT was performed following the method of Badole 2006, in STZ induced diabetic mice group and normal mice group. Acute oral toxicity test was performed based on OECD guidelines, with reference to behavioural aspects, in Swiss Albino mice.

Results: CAAE did not produce any mortality and sign of lethality throughout the study period of 14 days. In normal mice the percentage change in BGL ranges from 91.42% - 40.85% in NC (Normal Control) mice; 84.85% - 21.90% in GTNM Glibenclamide treated Normal Mice); and 88.66% - 43.28% in AqETNM (Aqueous Extract treated Normal Mice). In Diabetic group the percentage change in BGL ranges from 66.51% - 46.38% in DC (Diabetic Control) mice; 53.51% - 12.50% in GTDM (glibenclamide treated Diabetic Mice); and 55.21% - 0.33 in AqETDM (Aqueous Extract treated diabetic Mice).

Conclusion: The toxicity test result indicates that the extract is nontoxic and can be used in further bioactivity test. The study reveals the positive effect of extracts in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Toxicological Assessment of the Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves of Carissa edulis (Apocynaceae) in Wistar Rats

Razack Osseni, Stephen Akoha, Marius Adjagba, Simon Azonbakin, Latifou Lagnika, Bonaventure Awede, André Bigot, Amadou Diouf, Raphaël Darboux, Anatole Lalèyè

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26083

Aim: To screen the acute and 28-days subchronic toxicity of the leaves aqueous extract of Carissa edulis (C. edulis).

Design: Experimental and observational study.

Place and Duration: Faculty of health sciences of Cotonou / Institute of Applied Biomedical Sciences of Cotonou, laboratories of Physiology/Human biology/Immunology/ biochemistry and molecular biology( pharmacognosy section) / toxicology and hydrology of Dakar (Senegal) between March 2014 and January 2015.

Methods: The aqueous extract was obtained from the powder of the leaves by a decoction method and evaporation using a rotavapor. In the acute toxicity study (Limit test), a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of the extract was orally administered to three female rats. Different parameters were assessed according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 423 guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. During the sub-chronic toxicity, four groups of five rats of either sex received distilled water (control), 31.25,125 and 500 mg/kg of the extract daily for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. The assay was conducted according to the OECD 407 guidelines.

Results: In both acute and sub-chronic toxicity test, neither mortality nor other toxicity symptoms were observed. This suggests that the median Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is superior to 2000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the body and organ weights between controls and treated animals of both sexes. Indeed, some biological parameters including erythrocytes (6,89±0,07), Haematocrit (41,6±1,69), and Haemoglobin (13,31±0,16) levels were significantly reduced when compared to the control group but this is not imputable pathologically. Histological structures of liver and kidney were normal in both two sexes.

Conclusion: The aqueous extract of C. edulis was found to be safe in acute and 28-days sub-chronic toxicity studies. Furthermore, aspects of the effects of this plant on haematopoiesis, liver and kidney function need to be gained and ascertained over longer periods of toxicity study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Apoptotic Effects of Twenty Sri Lankan Endemic Plants in Breast Cancer Cells

Panchima P. Jayarathna, Kamani H. Tennekoon, Sameera R. Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, Eric H. Karunanayake, E. Dilip de Silva, Meran K. Ediriweera

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26591

Aims: Main aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antioxidant and apoptotic properties of Sri Lankan endemic plants in estrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) breast cancer and triple negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells.

Place and Duration of Study: At the Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, between June 2013 and May 2015.

Methodology: We investigated leaf and bark extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) of twenty endemic plants for possible cytotoxicity against breast cancer (on estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer) cell lines and normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A). Cytotoxic extracts were also investigated for possible apoptotic effects on MDA-MB-231 cells by caspase 3/7 estimation. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and the free radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also measured.

Results: Of the 156 solvent extracts from 20 plants studied only 35 extracts from 14 plants were significantly cytotoxic [18 extracts to MCF-7 cells (IC50 31.43 to 97.50 µg/mL), 7 extracts to MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 16.11 to 95.83 µg/mL) and 10 extracts (IC50 0.51 to 99.35 µg/mL) to both cell lines] with only some of these being less cytotoxic to normal breast epithelial cells. Caspase 3/7 was activated by some of the cytotoxic extracts. Polyphenol and free radical scavenging activity were high in most of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Flavonoids were present in all the extracts in varying quantities.

Conclusion: The cytotoxic and apoptotic potential demonstrated by some plants endemic to Sri Lanka, indicates strong leads for future drug discovery for combating breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of Microsomal Lipid Peroxidation and Protein Oxidation by Carica papaya (L) Leaf against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Injury in Wistar Albino Rats

O. J. Sule, K. Kiridi, A. R. Abdu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/13730

Aims: To investigate the hepatoprotective activities of C. papaya leaf in Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa-State, Nigeria, between April 2009 through July 2009.

Methods: Activity of total protein and bilirubin (direct and indirect bilirubin) in the serum were determined colourimetrically, while lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured in liver homogenate. Histopathological studies of the liver in both pretreated rats and controls were also, carried out. Group 1 (negative control) were fed with 100% rat feed. Groups 2- 4 were pretreated with 10, 30 and 50% C. papaya leaf respectively, while Group 5 (normal control) received 100% rat feed. Rats in Groups (1-4), were injected with CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight in 0.5 ml olive oil) on the 29th day while rats in group 5 were not administered with CCl4 (normal control). The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: There was significant increase (p< 0.05) in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and bilirubin (direct and indirect) in rats Group 1 when compared with the normal control. However, there is a significant decrease in the levels of these biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde and bilirubin) in the pretreated Groups (2-4) when compared with the negative control. Also, the protein levels significantly decreased (p< 0.05) in the untreated rat Group 1 when compared the normal control. Pretreatment with C. papaya leaf significantly increased the levels of total protein in the rat Groups (2-4) when compared with the untreated Group 1. The decrease in the levels of MDA and bilirubin in the pretreated groups were concentration dependent. Rats in Group 4 that pretreated with 50% C. papaya leaf had the lowest values for MDA and bilirubin. Histopathology of the liver showed reduced level of injury with normal architecture in pretreated rats while; those not pretreated were presented with severe degrees of injuries.

Conclusion: Conclusively, the study reveals that Carica papaya may confer hepatoprotectivty to the rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Products Screening for the Identification of Selective Monoamine Oxidase-B Inhibitors

Najla O. Zarmouh, Samia S. Messeha, Faisel M. Elshami, Karam F. A. Soliman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26453

Aims: Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (MAO-BIs) are used for the initial therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Also, MAO-BIs have shown to be effective neuroprotective agents in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, some concerns exist regarding the long-term use of these compounds. Meanwhile, natural compounds showed potential MAO-B selective inhibitions. To date, few selective natural MAO-BIs have been identified. Therefore, the current study is designed to identify plants with potent and specific MAO-B inhibition.

Study Design: In this work, we utilized high throughput screening to evaluate the different plants ethanolic extract for their effectiveness to inhibit recombinant human (h)MAO-A and hMAO-B and to determine the relative selectivity of the top MAO-BI.

Methodology: Recombinant human isozymes were verified by Western blotting, and the 155 plants were screened. A continuous fluorometric screening assay was performed followed by two separate hMAO-A and hMAO-B microtiter screenings and IC50 determinations for the top extracts.

Results: In the screened plants, 9% of the extracts showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-B (RIB) and another 9% showed more than 1.5-fold relative inhibition of hMAO-A. The top extracts with the most potent RIBs were Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Phellodendron amurense bark, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Ferula assafoetida roots, with the highest RIB of 5.9-fold. Furthermore, extensive maceration of the promising extracts led to increase inhibitory effects with a preserved RIB as confirmed with luminescence assay. The top four extracts hMAO-BIs were equally potent (IC50= 1.3 to 3.8 μg/mL) with highly significant relative selectivities to inhibit hMAO-B (4.1- to 13.4-fold).

Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that Psoralea corylifolia seeds, Ferula assafoetida, Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots, and Phellodendron amurense ethanolic extracts have selective inhibitions for human MAO-B. Investigating these plant extracts as natural resources for novel selective MAO-BIs may lead to the development of molecules that can be used in the therapeutic management of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease.