Open Access Short Research Article

Elicitation of Biomass and Secondary Metabolite Production, Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Potential of Basil and Oregano Induced by BA and IBA Application

Erna Karalija, Dolores Neimarlija, Jasmina Cakar, Adisa Paric

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26121

Elicitation effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and benzyladenine (BA) on oregano and basil shoots were investigated through analysis of photosynthetic pigments content, biomass production, quantification of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols and proanthocyanidins content. Also antioxidative and antimicrobial potential of extracts were assessed. Biomass production varied significantly among two species and treatments. Auxin induced decrease of chlorophyll levels. Accumulation of phenols was noticed in basil shoots when BA was applied in low concentrations, while in oregano high BA concentrations induced phenol accumulation. Flavonoids accumulation was noticed for 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L of BA as well for 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L BA in combination with 0.1 mg/L IBA in basil shoots. Addition of IBA induced accumulation of flavonoids in oregano shoots only when equal concentration of BA and IBA was applied. Flavanols content decreased by addition of IBA for basil shoots as well as for oregano. Small concentrations of auxins stimulated antioxidative response in oregano shoots. Elicitation of secondary metabolites resulted in elevation of antimicrobial potential of oregano adventive shoots when BA was applied.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Potency of Organic Extracts of Leaves of Corchorus depressus Linn.

Fazilatun Nessa, Saeed A. Khan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26006

Aim: Evaluation of free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities of commercially available leaves of Corchorus depressus Linn. by in-vitro chemical analysis.

Methodology: Four different solvent extracts methanol-CDM, ethanol-CDE, ethyl acetate-CDEA and hexane-CDH were studied for their free radical scavenging activities using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay method and the results were expressed as SC50 values. The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities of three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) were evaluated using b-carotene-linoleic acid model system and the results were expressed as oxidation rate ratio (ROR), antioxidant activity (AA) and antioxidant activity coefficient (CAA). L-Ascorbic acid-AA, a-tocopherol-TOC and BHT were used as reference compounds. The total polyphenol contents of these extracts were also determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent.

Results: The total polyphenol contents of extracts were decreased in the order of: CDM > CDE > CDEA >> CDH. In DPPH radical assay, CDM exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity (SC50: 216.27 µg/mL) than CDE (327.84 µg/mL) and CDEA (544.28 µg/mL). In comparison with natural antioxidants AA and TOC, the overall ranking was decreased in the order of: AA > CDM > TOC > CDE > CDEA >> CDH. In b-carotene-linoleic acid model system, CDM also exhibited higher protective activity against lipid peroxidation than other extracts as it exhibited lower ROR (0.4903 to 0.2752) and higher AA (50.96 to 72.47) and CAA (280.58 to 513.13) respectively amongst the studied extract. In comparison with BHT and TOC, CDM exhibited promising potency than TOC. Amongst the studied concentration 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were the mostly potent antioxidant against oxidation of linoleic acid.

Conclusion: CDM exhibited most propitious antioxidant activities irrespective of the method undertaken in this study. CDM and CDE had protective activity against oxidation of fatty acid as well as both efficiently scavenged free radicals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Fifteen Mangrove Plants Found in Sri Lanka for in-vitro Cytotoxic Properties on Breast (MCF-7) and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

Sameera R. Samarakoon, Chanthirika Shanmuganathan, Meran K. Ediriweera, Poorna Piyathilaka, Kamani H. Tennekoon, Ira Thabrew

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26107

Aims: Evaluation of cytotoxic potential on the leaves and stem bark extracts of 15 mangrove plants grown in Sri Lanka on breast cancer (MCF -7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

Place and Duration of Study: At the Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Colombo between 1st of February 2014 to April 2015.

Methodology: Leaves and stem barks of 15 mangrove plants were extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Resulting extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.

Results: Phoenix paludosa, Avicennia officinalis and Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea showed highest cytotoxic properties on cancer cells. Chloroform extract of stem bark of S. hydrophyllacea, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of leaves), hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of Aegiceras corniculatum, methanol extracts of leaves and stem bark of Nypa fruticans and Rhizophora mucronata, methanol extract of stem bark of Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora apiculata and methanol extract of bark of A. officinalis exerted selective cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The hexane extract of leaves of B. gymnorrhiza, chloroform extract of leaves of N. fruticans, ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Lumnitzera littorea, chloroform extract of leaves of Rhizophora apiculata and chloroform extract of leaves of Pemphis acidula showed selective cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 cells. Out of the 116 mangrove extracts tested, 82 extracts showed no significant cytotoxic effects (IC50>100 µg/mL) against MCF 7 or HepG2 cells.

Conclusion: The cytotoxic activities demonstrated by some of the solvent extracts of some mangrove plants provide scientific evidence for their therapeutic potentials and further studies are needed to identify active compounds responsible for cytotoxic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Acute Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Moringa oleifera on Immunoglobulin levels in Wistar Rats

S. O. Ojeka, O. Obia, D. V. Dapper

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24880

Aims: This present study aims to determine the effect of acute administration of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf on immunoglobulins in wistar rats.

Methods: Acute toxicity study of aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extract was done using 24 mice divided into six (6) groups of four (4) were used. The graded doses of the extract (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 i.p) corresponding to group 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 served as test groups; group 1 received distilled water as control. Forty (40) male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. Group 1 served as control and received distilled water, while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 served as test groups and received 20 mg/kg bw, 40 mg/kg bw, 60 mg/kg bw and 80 mg/kg bw of the extract respectively. The administration was for 14 days. At the end of administration, blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and IgA, IgG and IgM levels were estimated by the immunoturbudrimetric method. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The acute toxicity study showed LD50 of 1 g/kg. Result obtained show a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the serum concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG); and a significant (p<0.05) increase in the serum levels of immunoglobulins A and M (IgA and IgM) at a dose of 40 mg/kg of the extract. However, a significant (p<0.05) increase was observed for immunoglobulin A at 60 mg/kg when compared to the control. There were no significant changes in the immunoglobulins at the other concentrations.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates possible beneficial therapeutic effect on the amelioration of immunological diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis etc in human clinical trials, especially at low concentration for immunoglobulins A and M. This finding supports the anecdotal use of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera as an immune boosting agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Wild Plants for Medicinal Purposes in Selected Tiv Communities of Benue State, Nigeria: An Ethnobotanical Approach

S. A. Shomkegh, R. Mbakwe, B. I. Dagba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26118

Aims: An ethnobotanical survey of wild plants used for the treatment of ailments was carried out among randomly selected sub-tribes in Tiv communities of Benue State.

Study Design: Group Interviews were carried out with herbalists in each kindred from selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) within the Tiv ethnic territory of Benue State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in selected kindreds in Guma, Gboko and Kwande LGAs of Benue state between January and August, 2011.

Methodology: Focused Group Interviews were held with herbalists in each selected kindred in the LGAs to elicit information on plants used in the treatment of ailments in the communities. Ailments treated were listed by the herbalists and plant/plant parts used, mode of preparation and administration were documented and validated by the respondents.

Results: Forty (40) plant species were used in treating twenty-two (22) ailments in Guma LGA, with Anona senegalensis Pers. being the most utilized species in the treatment of different ailments (6 ailments). It was followed by Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. used in the treatment of 4 ailments. In Gboko LGA, 26 plants species were utilized in the treatment of 19 ailments with Maytenus senegalensis [Lam] Excell utilized in the treatment of 5 ailments, followed by Burkea africana Hook.F and Annona senegalensis (3 ailments each). Twenty-eight plant species were utilized in the treatment of 21 ailments in Kwande LGA. Maytenus senegalensis was utilized in treating 4 ailments followed by Burkea africana (3 ailments). Main plant parts utilized for treatment of ailments were leaves (30%), bark (32%) and root (27%).

Conclusion: The respondents admitted that they preferred herbal treatment due to its affordability, accessibility and effectiveness. These claims though not verified could be useful for the identification of plants with medicinal potential for scientific investigation, validation and manufacture of drugs.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Ethiopian Traditional Medicinal Plants Used for Cancer Treatment

Worku Abebe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25670

Traditional medicine plays a significant role in the healthcare of the majority of the people in developing countries, including Ethiopia, and medicinal plants provide valuable contribution to this practice. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is becoming one of major health problems in Ethiopia. Relying primarily on field surveys, there have been recent efforts to assess the use of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases including cancer. The present paper is an overview of the literature reporting the use of these plants for cancer treatment.  It was reported that 30 species of plants were used for treating human cancer, with most of them belonging to different plant families. In addition to cancer, a large majority of the plants were also used against various types of other diseases. For most of the plants reported (73%), there was some kind of independent experimental/clinical evidence supporting their claimed anticancer activity. A small number of medicinal plants (13%) were mentioned to be used only in Ethiopia for cancer treatment, but no experimental/clinical confirmation was available. Despite certain limitations of the studies reviewed, the present paper provides useful information on the overall status of Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants as used for treatment of cancer. This information can be used for designing and conducting future research on this important subject.