Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Antibacterial and Antifungal Efficacy of Selected Tanzania Medicinal Plants

Barakaeli Abdiel Ndossi, Musa Chacha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23458

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Crassocephalum vitellinum (Benth), Euphorbia hirta (L), Cupressus lusitanica (Mill), Euphorbia inaquilatera (Sond), Ajuga remota (Benth) and Lantana camara (linn) extracts against six Gram negative bacterial strains and two fungal strains.

Study Design: In vitro antibacterial and antifungal assay was done using micro dilution method.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha-Tanzania, between December 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: Plant materials were grinded and soaked in solvents which later removed by using vacuum rotary evaporator to obtain crude extracts. Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Klebsiella oxytoca, Salmonella kisarawe and two strains of fungi; Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans were tested on the prepared crude extracts. The micro dilution method using 96 wells plates was used to determine minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). After 24 hours of incubation, 20 μL of 0 .02% para–iodo nitrotetrazolium (INT) chloride dye prepared in distilled water was added to each well then incubated for 1 hour and 30 minutes at 37°C.

Results: Thirty seven extracts from 6 plant species investigated exhibited antimicrobial activity against tested fungi (C. neoformans and C. albicans) and Gram negative bacteria (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, K. oxytoca and S. kisarawe). C. vitellinum leaf methanolic extract, E. inaequilatera methanolic extract, A. remota leaf and stem methanolic extracts exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against K. oxytoca, P. aeruginosa, S. typhi and K. pneumoniae e with a MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL. L. camara leaf chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts and A. remota leaf chloroform demonstrated high activity against S. typhi, K. pneumoniae e and C. neoformans with MIC value of 0.78 mg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity against E. coli was exhibited by                E. hirta methanolic, E. inaquilatera chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts with MIC value of 1.56 mg/mL.

Conclusion: Results showed that Crassocephalum vitellinuum (leaves and stem), Lantana camara (leaves, whole flowers and petals), Cupressus lusitanica (leaves, seed cover and seeds), Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia inaquilatera possess antimicrobial activities against Gram negative bacterial strains and fungal strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analyzes from the Leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum

Esther O. Faboro, Liqing Wei, Shaobo Liang, Armando G. McDonald, Craig A. Obafemi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/26156

Aims: To identify extractable components in the traditional medicinal plant, Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP).

Methodology: The leaves of BP were sequentially extracted with non-polar (CH2Cl2) and polar (CH3OH) solvents. The extracts were derivatized to their volatile fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and trimethylsilyl (TMS) esters/ethers and characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of sterols, fatty acids, monoarylphenolics, sugars, alcohols, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, carboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, tricarboxylic acids, vitamin, alkanes and alkenes.

Conclusion: Compounds identified (e.g. tocopherol) in the extracts are most likely responsible for its antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, antitumour and insecticidal activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic and Anti Inflammatory Activity of Ficus glomerata Fruit Extract

Roksana Rahman, Ummul Khayer Fatema, Israt Jahan Bulbul

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25322

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemicals, analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the ethanolic extract of Ficus glomerata Roxb. (Moraceae) fruits on Swiss albino mice.

Study Design: The freshly prepared crude extract was qualitatively tested for the identification of preliminary phytochemical constituents. 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses were assessed for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities on animal models.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January to June 2015.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was evaluated using formalin induced paw licking test, Eddy’s hot plate method. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of F. glomerata fruit indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, gum carbohydrates, alkaloids, reducing sugar and terpenoids in ethanolic extracts. In analgesic activity using formalin induced paw licking test, the test and standard drugs significantly (p<.001) reduced the number of licking and biting the hind paw. Analgesic activity studied by hot plate method showed all the test and standard drugs significantly (p<.001) reduced the pain as compare to the control group. Ethanolic extract of F. glomerata significantly (p<.001) inhibited carrageenan induced paw edema.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that F. glomerata fruit extract possess significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and the dose 500 mg/kg body weight is more significant than 250 mg/kg body weight in all of the methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antiplasmodial Activity and GC­MS Analysis of Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake Leaf

Muhammad Hauwa Idris, Abdullahi Mann, Adamu Yusuf Kabiru, Musa Bola Busari

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18826

Aim: To analyse the phytochemical components using GC­MS technique and evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of crude extract and partitioned fractions of Vernonia colorata leaf.

Study Design: Qualitative, gravimetric and Chromatographic methods of analysis were adopted for phytochemical analysis, while experimental design (In vivo) was used for antiplasmodial study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of chemistry and Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna Niger State, Nigeria, between April 2014 to April 2015.

Methodology: The crude extract and partitioned fractions were evaluated for their antiplasmodial activity in vivo against Plasmodium bergei at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kgbw using standard methods. The combined fractions obtained after column chromatography were analysed using GC­MS analysis. The antiplasmodial activity of V. colorata in mice infected with P. berghei showed effects of graded doses of the extract with dose dependent inhibition of parasitaemia with maximum effect at 600 mg/kg. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) in mice was also evaluated and estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. GC­MS analysis was carried out on combined fractions (VC20) of                   V. colorata leaf.

Results: The analysis showed major chemical constituents such as 9­octadecenoic acid (12.86%), 3, 11­tetradecadien­1­ol (19.90%), 13­docosenoic acid (13.86%) and 4­methyl­1­decene (24.07%). The antiplasmodial evaluation carried out in this research shows a considerable antiplasmodial activity of V. colorata. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression and Histopathology of Rat’s Cerebrum Following Consumption of Ethanolic Stem Extract and Juice of Costus afer

Akpantah Amabe Otoabasi, Elogbo Ele, Isamoh Theresa Ekpenyong, Eluwa Mokutima Amarachi, Igiri O. Anozeng, Ekanem Theresa Bassey

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24506

Aims: Costus afer (C. afer) is a medicinal plant commonly used as a herbal remedy for diabetes and hypertension in our country, Nigeria  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude ethanolic stem extract/juice of C. afer (bush cane) on the cerebrum of rats.

Study Design: This study is designed to test possible adverse effect of C. afer stem extract and stem juice on the cerebral histology and astrocytic protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein expression using the rat’s model.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria between May and July 2015. 

Methodology: Adult albino Wistar rats weighing between 150 g – 210 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group I served as the control group and received distilled water, Group II was given the extract, 200 mg/kg weight of rat. Group III, was given the extract, 500 mg/kg weight of the rat while group IV was given the juice, 5ml/kg weight of the rat. Administration was done orally once a day using the orogastric tube for 28 days, at the end of which the animals were sacrificed g chloroform anaesthesia and preserved in buffered formaldehyde. The gross morphology was observed, histology of the cerebrum was studied using Haematoxylin and Eosin stain, and glial fibrillary acidic protein as an index of brain injury was assessed using immunohistochemical procedures.

Results: Results showed that C. afer had no adverse morphological effect on the rats. A mild vacuolation of the cells and reactive astrogliosis were observed on sections of cerebrum from the experimental animals. These indicate toxic effects on the cerebrum of Wistar rats

Conclusion: It was concluded that C. afer stem extract and juice administered to rats caused vacuolation of cells and astrogliosis in the cerebrum and these indicate toxic effect.

Open Access Review Article

Ergot Alkaloids: A Review on Therapeutic Applications

Niti Sharma, Vinay K. Sharma, Hemanth Kumar Manikyam, Acharya Bal Krishna

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25975

Ergot of Rye is a plant disease caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea which infects the grains of cereals and grasses but it is being used for ages for its medicinal properties. All the naturally obtained ergot alkaloids contain tetracyclic ergoline ring system, which makes them structurally similar with other neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. Due to this structure homology these alkaloids can be used for the treatment of neuro related conditions like migraine, Parkinson’s disease etc. For hundreds of years, it has been used in obsctrics and gynecology as an uterotonics. Ergot drugs have important role in treating prolactinomas and type II Diabetes. Their role in cancer treatment has also been established. These drugs constitute an important group of compounds called “Smart drugs” used to improve cognitive function and memory and other age related brain disorders. Structural resemblance with various neurotransmitters allows them to interact with a number of receptors which makes them work on different target thus designing new ergot based drugs with receptor subtype selectivity will be more effective.