Open Access Case Report

Utilization of Traditional Herbs, Spices, Seasoning and Condiments: A Case Study of the Preparation of “Buknu” in Selected Villages of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Kumari Kshama Awasthi, Amit Pandey

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24951

Majority of the world’s population is still using the traditional herbal food for their healthcare. India has a good amount of diversity in spices like black pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, tamarind and garcinia. The other important spices relevant to India are coriander, fennel, fenugreek, cumin, nutmeg, clove and vanilla.

Aim: The present case study highlights traditional uses of different parts of medicinal plants for preparation of traditional spice called as “Buknu”, also the therapeutic activity and various pharmacological effects of the medicinal plants used in the formulation of this spice.

Place and Duration of the Study: The documentation of the medicinal properties of the ingredients of Buknu was also done by personal interviews with the local inhabitants and healers in the selected villages of Bhognipur Tehsil of Kanpur Dehat district in Uttar Pradesh during October to November 2015.

Methodology: A review of literature was carried out using several resources through online internet searches, including scientific databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, etc.

Results: Buknu is a very ancient recipe and has medicinal values; it is consumed as spice and condiments and also can be used as an ingredient in many digestive preparations such as churan. It is found to have a high therapeutic value due to presence of around 21 types of herbal drugs. The present work is an effort to document the traditional method to prepare Buknu and the medicinal properties of various ingredients used in the preparation of Buknu.

Conclusion: The present study documented a unique preparation of spice traditionally called “Buknu” the word means “to grind”, it is given such name because of its preparation by grinding the mixture of several spices. It is very good and healthy due to its ingredients which have been mentioned in the study. It’s digestive and good for stomach. Its preparation is quick and convenient which gets it an edge over other preparation of spices.

Open Access Minireview Article

Paulownia as a Medicinal Tree: Traditional Uses and Current Advances

Ting He, Brajesh N. Vaidya, Zachary D. Perry, Prahlad Parajuli, Nirmal Joshee

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25170

Paulownia is one of the most useful and sought after trees, in China and elsewhere, due to its multipurpose status. Though not regarded as a regular medicinal plant species, various plant parts (leaves, flowers, fruits, wood, bark, roots and seeds) of Paulownia have been used for treating a variety of ailments and diseases. Each of these parts has been shown to contain one or more bioactive components, such as ursolic acid and matteucinol in the leaves; paulownin and d-sesamin in the wood/xylem; syringin and catalpinoside in the bark. The fruits contain fatty oils, alkaloids, flavonones as well as flavonoids with antioxidant properties. The flavonoid contents and TROLOX Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) value in fresh and dry leaf extracts of Paulownia elongata suggest that this species has potential for advanced medicinal use. In vitro grown Paulownia fortunei Hemsl. seedlings, inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes have a potential to produce hairy roots and synthesize bioactive compounds such as acteosides (verbascosides). With various new studies describing isolation of therapeutic compounds and their probable application in human health, it is an opportune moment to revisit medicinal potential of this tree. In this review, the usage of Paulownia in traditional medicine has been revisited and current advances in various fields of research in the genus Paulownia are summarized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effects of Rubus idaeus L. Leaves against CCl4-Induced Liver Injury via Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antiapoptotic Mechanisms

Hala Attia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25300

Aims: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.

Study Design and Methodology: Forty rats were divided into 5 groups, 1) normal control; 2) Raspberry (Rsp) control (100 mg/kg); 3) CCl4 control; 4) and 5) CCl4 groups pre-treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg of Rsp leaves, respectively, once daily for 10 days.  Liver injury was induced on the 11th day in groups 3, 4 and 5 by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1.0 ml/kg) in 50% olive oil (1:1). Serum and liver were separated and prepared for biochemical and histological assay. Antioxidant, inflammatory and apoptotic markers were evaluated.

Results: CCl4-induced liver damage was manifested by increased activities of serum marker enzymes, elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and by decreased hepatic antioxidants including reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. CCl4 also resulted in elevated levels of hepatic inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), interleukin -6 (IL-6), IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO) as well as upregulation of apoptotic markers including caspase-3, FasL and Bax. Hepatic levels of Bcl2, an anti-apoptotic factor, was decreased by CCl4. Pretreatment with Rsp leaves significantly ameliorated the elevation in serum liver enzymes and prevented lipid peroxidation and the depletion of the antioxidants. In addition, Rsp leaves exhibited anti-inflammatory effects via attenuation of increased hepatic levels of TNF-α, Il-6, IL-1β and NO. Additionally, CCl4-Induced apoptosis in the liver cell was attenuated by Rsp pretreatment. With regard to histological examination, Rsp leaves significantly alleviated degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes, accompanied by decreased inflammatory cell infiltration.

Conclusion: These results suggest that Rsp leaves have protective effects against CCl4-induced acute liver injury, and this protection is likely due to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Seed Extract of Brassica juncea

Nguyen Le Bao Duy, Dao Thi Diem Trang

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25525

Aims: The aim of this research is to investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the seed extract of Brassica juncea (B. juncea).

Study Design: Qualitative analysis of for phytochemicals was performed. Experimental mouse model was contributed for toxicity test and anticonvulsant activity of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizure.

Place and Duration of Study: Applied Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Applied Biochemistry, School of Biotechnology, International University, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh, between June 2014 and December 21014.

Methodology: Phytochemicals from the methanol seed extract were screened by standard methods. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 425 guidelines while anticonvulsant activity was assessed against PTZ-induced seizure in mice. The effect of the extract at dose levels of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in an experimental mice model, using diazepam as positive control (5 mg/kg, p.o). At the end of the observation period, the animals were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathological examination.

Results: The phytochemical study showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and phenolic compounds in the seeds of B. juncea. The Acute oral toxicity study indicated that the extract was safe and non-toxic to mice up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. The extract significantly delayed the latency of convulsion (p ˂ 0.05) induced by PTZ at the dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. The extract also reduced the frequency of convulsion and provided up to 100% protection (500 mg/kg p.o) against death.

Conclusion: The data suggest that the methanol seed extract of B. juncea is safe and possesses anticonvulsant activity in PTZ-induced seizure in mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn Leaves Extracts

S. Asha, P. Thirunavukkarasu, V. Magendira Mani, A. Mohamed Sadiq

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24952

In the present study, the objectives were to determine the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Euphorbia hirta. The crude extracts were investigated for its total phenolic and flavonoid content by using Folin-Coicalteu assays and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. It was found that Euphorbia hirta ethanol extract had highest total phenolic and flavonoid content compared to other extracts. In addition, the antioxidant activity of three extracts was tested by DPPH (1,1’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. From the result, it is concluded that ethanolic extract has a strong percentage of inhibition with lower IC50 value than aqueous and methanol extract. The results indicate that there was a direct correlation between total phenol and antioxidant activity. This study confirmed that the leaves of Euphorbia hirta possess antioxidant property to scavenge the free radical.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioactivity and Nutritional Values of Some Dioscorea Species Traditionally Used as Medicinal Foods in Bandundu, DR Congo

F. C. Bukatuka, K. N. Ngombe, K. P. Mutwale, B. M. Moni, K. G. Makengo, L. A. Pambu, N. G. Bongo, M. P. Mbombo, M. D. Musuyu, U. Maloueki, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, F. T. Mbemba

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25124

Aims: To valorize traditional foods of the Democratic Republic of Congo in general and the province of Bandundu in particular by evaluating the antioxidant activity of five species of Dioscorea, the determination of their chemical composition as well the determination of their glycemic index.

Study Design: Survey; plant collection and identification, phytochemical and biological evaluation: phytochemical screening, proximate analyses, in vitro and in vivo assays.

Place and Duration of Study: “Université de Kinshasa” (DR Congo), from February 2013 to December 2015.

Methodology: The anti-diabetic activity was carried out in vivo using an animal model (NMRI mice), by administration of a solution of glucose (200 mg/mL). Antioxidant activity was evaluated using the ABTS and DPPH assays. The micrographic analysis of the flours of the studied species showed that their starch grains are characteristic of each species by their size, their form and the position of the hila and the presence of the scratches.

Results: All extracts of Dioscorea displayed highest ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC50<1 mg/mL) related to their appreciable amount of total phenolic contents. Total phenolic contents expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dried extract are ranged from 9.85±0.098 to 51.12±0.500. Only Dioscorea bulbifera contains flavonoids expressed as 3.33±0.23 mg of quercetin equivalent. These yams showed a good antihypergycemic activity, Dioscorea praehensilis and Dioscorea bulbifera showed a glucose reduction rate of 54.0% and 51.3% after 30 min respectively.

Conclusion: The results obtained show that Dioscorea tubers species studied have a high food value and thus can be developed as functional food.