Open Access Short communication

Efficacy of Black Seeds Oil (Nigella sativa) against Hymenolepis nana in Infected Mice

Wafa A. I. Al-Megrin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24773

Recently, many biological activities (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiparasitic) of Nigella sativa seeds have been reported. We carried out this study to investigate the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa oil as an alternative and safe treatment against Hymenolepis nana based on an experimental study of white laboratory mice. Twenty-eight Swiss albino mice naturally infected with H. nana were divided into three groups; one group functioned as the control, and the remaining two groups were fed daily doses of black seed oil (2.5 and 5 ml/kg, respectively). We found that the efficacy of the 5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil dose against H. nana attained 100% 14 days after treatment; the efficacy of the 2.5 ml/kg Nigella sativa oil dose attained an efficacy of 100% 21 days after treatment. Our results indicate that N. sativa oil exhibits significant efficacy against H. nana in infected mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Ameliorative Property of Vernonia amygdalina Fractions in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

Emeka Anthony Ojieh, Ese C. Adegor, Micheal E. Aisuodionoe, A. Okunima, Christopher U. Onyekpe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24939

Medicinal plants play a major role in the management of Diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries.

Aims: The present study examines the bioactive constituents of Vernonia amygdalina and the effect of extract and fractions of Vernonia amygdalina on some biochemical indicators and antioxidant level in Diabetes mellitus management in Wistar rats.

Study Design: Multi-arm pre-post interventional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, faculty of basic medical sciences, Delta state university, Abraka. The study lasted for 28 days.

Methodology: The fresh Vernonia leaves were air-dried, crushed and soaked in ethanol for 48 hours after which the ethanolic extract was sieved out and allowed to dry. The resultant ethanol-free juice was subjected to liquid-liquid fractionation using solvents of varying polarity. The rats were divided into 7 groups (n=5) as follows, non-diabetic group, diabetic groups (crude, chloroform, ethyl acetate, Benzene and Butanol) received 300 mg/kg Vernonia amygdalina extract and the Metformin group received 50 mg/kg metformin.

Results: Administration of Crude ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina at dose of 300 mg/kg/day produce maximum fall (81.45%) in the fasting glucose level in diabetic rats and decreased aspartate aminotransferase (11%), alanine aminotransferase (82), alkaline phosphatase (21%), Bilirubin levels and triglycerides and low density lipoprptein-cholesterol (17%), while increasing the levels of serum proteins (69%) in the diabetic Wistar rats after 28 days of treatment. Administration of the fractions at 300 mg/kg/day produce a decrease in the fasting glucose level in diabetic rats, Chloroform (65.85%), ethyl acetete (69.65%), Benzene (45.59%) and Butanol (37.31%) respectively and decreased aspartate aminotransferase (11-66%), alanine aminotransferase (77-86%), alkaline phosphatase (60.75%), Bilirubin levels in the diabetic Wistar rats after 28 days of treatment.

Conclusion: The finding showed that Vernonia amygdalina extract and fractions reduced the hyperglycaemia induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats. It possesses significant antioxidant properties and ameliorated the toxic effect of Diabetes mellitus as evident by its effect of biochemical indicators. It also contains bioactive compounds with potent antidiabetic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-candidal Activity of Extracts of Some Selected Medicinal Plants on Clinical Isolate of Candida albicans and Its Standard ATCC 10231 Strain

N. Venugopal, K. Himakar Reddy, O. V. S. Reddy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25140

Aim: Extracts of four different medicinal plant parts such as stem bark of Murayya koenigii (Curry leaf plant), fruit peel of Punica granatum (Pomegranate), cloves of Allium sativum (Garlic) and rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) were used to test their anti-candidal activity on clinical isolate of Candida albicans and its ATCC 10231 strain. 

Methodology: Culture test, germ tube test and chlamydospore formation test were used for the confirmation of C. albicans isolates. Disc diffusion method was evaluated for anti-candidal activity. Secreted aspartyl proteinase (SAP) enzyme was assayed spectrophotometrically using bovine serum albumin as substrate.

Results: Out of ten isolates of Candida albicans made in the laboratory, isolate 5 showed good growth as compared to its standard culture ATCC 10231. Optimum temperature and pH was found to be 35 - 40ºC and pH 3.5 – 4, respectively. The garlic extract exhibited better anti-candidal activity on clinical isolate 5 and ATCC 10231 than the other plant extracts, as the zone of inhibition was found to be 28 mm for isolate 5 and 30 mm for ATCC 10231. Allicin, a highly unstable molecule was found to be a major ingredient of Allium sativum, and its concentration was found to be 214 µg/mL.

Conclusion: Allicin has not only exhibited good anti-candidal activity but also destroyed the Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAP), a key enzyme responsible for the candidiosis in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-bacterial Activity of Silybum marianum against Pathogenic and Resistant Bacteria

Amoos Bajwa, Sheraz Tariq, Alamgeer Yuchi, Rizwan Hafeez, Amna Arshad, Muhammad Zaman, Tahir Aqeel, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24732

Aims: Our arsenal of antibiotics is running low due to overuse and misuse of these lifesaving drugs. Much research is needed on medicinal plants to look for drugs to tackle this issue

Methodology: so antibacterial activity of organic extracts of Silybum marianum was evaluated against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resistant E. coli, ATCC 12361, ATCC 12466 and ATCC 13581. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar well diffusion methods.

Results: Among all assayed organic extracts only Dimethylformamide presented highest activities against all tested strains except resistant E. coli. Dimethylformamide and Methanol showed better activity than cephradine against ACTT 13581. The Dichloromethane extract showed no antibacterial activity against any strains. Methanol and Isopropyl Alcohol showed moderate activities against all tested strains. S. marianum would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for resistant and pathogenic bacterial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Other Pharmacological Activities of Methanol Extract of Rhododendron campanulatum from Nepal

Atmika Paudel, Suresh Panthee, Sushma Shakya, Sadhana Amatya, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha, Mohan Prasad Amatya

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24867

Aims: Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don is a plant of Ericaceae family that is found at an altitude of 3000-4200 meters. Traditionally, it has been used to cure rheumatism, hemicranias, sciatica and colds. This study aims to determine analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and effect on gastrointestinal motility, brain function and skeletal muscle of Rhododendern campanulatum extracts in mice.

Methodology: Pharmacological activities were evaluated in mice. Analgesic activity was determined by hot plate and chemical writhing methods; anti-inflammatory activity by ability to cure carrageenan induced paw edema; effect on gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal assay, effect on brain function by locomotor activity and skeletal muscle relaxant activity by traction test.

Results: Methanol extract from R. campanulatum increased the response time of mice from 6 secs to 20 secs in hot plate assay and reduced the stretching episodes from 49 to 14 in acetic acid induced writhing tests revealing its analgesic activity. The extract at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 inhibited carrageenan induced paw edema by 66.66% and reduced the gastrointestinal motility to 51.66%. The methanol extract inhibited locomotor activity and grasping power of mice suggesting its central nervous system depressant and skeletal muscle relaxant activities respectively.

Conclusion: The present study shows that Rhododendron campanulatum has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-motility, central nervous system depressant and muscle relaxant properties. These results suggest that R. campanulatum could be a source for potential drug formulation.

Open Access Review Article

Antidiabetic Effects of Pterocarpus marsupium (Gammalu)

H. K. I. Perera

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23930

Herbal medicines are considered to offer gentle means of managing chronic diseases at a lower cost. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) (Gammalu in Sinhala) heartwood and bark have been used as antidiabetic remedies in many cultures for thousands of years. The aim of this review is to address the existing evidence on antidiabetic effects of the P. marsupium. The hypoglycaemic effects, antidyslipidaemic effects, antioxidative effects and the safety of the PM heartwood and the bark have been scientifically validated using a multitude of in vitro and in vivo studies. Multiple mechanisms responsible for hypoglycaemic effects of PM including b-cell regeneration, insulin release and insulin-like actions of some compounds isolated were identified. (-)-Epicatechin, a flavonoid isolated from the bark has shown insulin-like effects, effects on b-cell regeneration and insulin release. Several compounds including pterostilbene and marsupsin isolated from the PM heartwood were identified as compounds with hypoglycaemic effects. The latex (gum) of the tree is a popular remedy used in Sri Lanka for diabetes even though the literature on PM does not discuss about the antidiabetic effects of the latex. Few investigations focused on the antidiabetic effects of PM latex have demonstrated strong inhibitory effects of the latex on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and on protein glycation. Investigations focusing on the antidiabetic effects and possible toxicity of the PM latex are essential to validate its efficacy and safety.