Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatotoxicity Assessment in Wistar Rats Exposed to Vitellaria paradoxa Stem Bark Extract

A. S. Mainasara, T. Oduola, U. Musa, A. S. Mshelia, A. O. Muhammed, A. S. Ajayi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24936

Background: Different parts of Vitellaria paradoxa are being used in the treatment of different diseases in several parts of Nigeria without considering its safety.

Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ingestion of Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark extract on the liver functions of Wistar rats.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

Methods: The oral acute toxicity (LD50) of the extract was determined in 30 Wistar rats divided into six of five per group. Group 1 was the control and received normal saline. Different doses of 5, 50, 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg were administered once to the study groups (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) respectively. A sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out in 30 Wistar rats, divided into six of 5 rats per group. Group 1 served as control and was given normal saline and standard rat pellets. The remaining 5 groups were administered different doses of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg of the extract respectively daily for 30 days. Total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total and conjugated Bilirubin (TB and CB), amino transferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), were assayed using standard techniques, and body weights of the rats taken twice weekly.

Results: No death or signs of toxicity were recorded in the oral acute toxicity study among the rats after 24 hours and up to 14 days post-oral treatment. In sub-chronic toxicity, the results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in all parameters, except group 6 ALB values and GGT values for groups 4 and 5 which were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the control but were within the reference range. The weekly body weight of the rats showed no significant difference (p>0.05) between the control and the experimental rats. Histology results of the liver revealed normocytic normochromic cells.

Conclusion: From our findings, ingestion of Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark extract produced no harmful effect on liver function in Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical Analyses and in-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Simarouba glauca (Paradise Tree)

Sammy Davies Ehiosu Osagie-Eweka, Noghayin Jerry Orhue, Diamond Orobosa Ekhaguosa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24736

Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of Simarouba glauca vis-à-vis standard antioxidants.

Study Design: True experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin City. Nigeria, between August and October 2015.

Methodology: Samples were harvested, air dried, pulverized and extracted with aqueous and absolute ethanol; freeze dried at the National energy commission centre, University of Benin. Total phenol content was determined by Folin-ciocalteau method, tannin determined according to Folin and Denis methods while flavonoids content was determined according to the methods described by Ebrahimzadeh et al. DPPH radical scavenging activity was conducted based on the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a stable free radical, to decolorize in the presence of antioxidants. Reducing power activity of extracts was conducted based on test samples extract’ ability to reduce ferricyanide to ferrocyanide indicated in the colour change. Total antioxidant activity of ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts was determined based on the ability of the sample to reduce the ferric-tripyridyltriazine (Fe (III)-TPTZ) complex to ferrous tripyridyltriazine (Fe(II)-TPTZ) at low pH. Hydroxyl radical activity of extracts was conducted on the principle based on the ability of test samples to reduce H2O2 in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of extracts was conducted based on the ability of test sample to scavenge 2,2’azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS+) radical generated based on the principle of decolourization. Nitric oxide (NO.) radical scavenging activity of S, glauca leaf extracts was estimated based on the ability of test samples to scavenge radicals generated by the reaction of naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride. Butylated hydroxytuolene (BHT), Ascorbate, Quercetin and Trolox were standard antioxidant.

Results: DPPH radical scavenging activity yielded aqueous and ethanol extracts IC50 values of 3.2144 and 4.9100 µg/ml respectively. Reducing power activity yielded (aqueous and ethanol extracts) EC50 of values 60.3233 and 60.1000 µg/ml respectively. Total antioxidant activity yielded (ethanol and aqueous extracts) IC50 values of 52.4320 and 68.8201 µg/ml respectively. Hydroxyl radical activity yielded (ethanol and aqueous extracts) IC50 values of 49.3130 and 50.2341 µg/ml respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity yielded (ethanol and aqueous extracts) IC50 values of 45.2015 and 52.0721 µg/ml respectively. Nitric oxide scavenging activity yielded aqueous IC50 value of 14.2102 µg/ml but ethanol extract yielded no inhibition concentration at 50 percent.

Conclusion: The study showed that aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of S. glauca demonstrated substantial amount of biochemically valuable phytochemicals and antioxidant potential capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Commiphora africana Resin Phytochemical Analysis & Some Biological Aspects

Ibtisam M. Ahmed, Suad A. Gadir, Taguldien M. Abdallah

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22531

Medicinal plants are the richest bioresources of drugs. There is need to validate medicinal and aromatic plants researches results through an organized database.

Objective: To identify the terpenoids in Commiphora africana resin and some biological activity specially antiviral activity.

Materials and Methods: Two different methods were done to identify Terpenoids in this resin, dipping the resin in CH2Cl2 and isolation using column chromatography [1], ethanol and water extract were extracted for phytochemical screening and the biological aspects.

Results: Phytochemical screening identified that Flavonoids, Saponins, Alkaloids and Terpenes were the major constituents of C. africana resin ethanolic and water extracts. GC-MS analysis of CH2Cl2 extract and the isolated samples by column chromatography revealed compounds which can play important role in therapy, so as Betulin C30H50O2. Urs-12-en-28-al, 3-(acetyloxy) C32H50O3. Cholest-22-ene-21-ol, 3-5-dehydro-6-methoxy-, pivalate C33H54O3 and Phthalic acid, bis(2-pentyl) ester  C18H26O4. LC50 values of water and ethanolic extracts were found to be 100 and 630.9 respectively.  While the LC50 for the aqueous water solution of the crude resin was found to be 63.1.

High and clear antiviral activity towards Newcastle virus was observed at 400 ug/ml C. africana  water solution, 400 ug/ml C. africana water extract  and 100, 200, 400, 500 ug/ml C. africana ethanol extract. The highest antimicrobial activity recorded was obtained for C. africana ethanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella porwonia, Asperogillus niger and Candida Albicans

Conclusion: Antiviral activity shown by Commiphora africana resin extracts may be due to different compounds included.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Synergistic Activity of Ethanolic Leave Extract of Terminalia chebula in Combination to Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin against Various Bacterial Strains

Nisrat Jahan, Sharifa Jahan

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24765

Aims: To investigate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula leaf against Bacillus cereus, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella  paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio milieus, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii, Salmonella typhii in comparison to standard antibiotics azithromycin and ciprofloxacin.

Study Design: Extraction of T. chebula leaf, susceptibility tests (zone of inhibition) of extract itself as well as with combination of antibiotics.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaves of T. chebula were collected from Gazipur, Bangladesh, in October, 2015, and identified by an expert taxonomist. (Hosne Ara, Director, Bangladesh National Herbarium, Mirpur-1, Dhaka, Bangladesh) Antibacterial analysis was done in Department Pharmacy, Southeast University from August to December, 2015.

Methodology: Disc diffusion test was done to determine Antibacterial activity to plant extract against the above mentioned microbial species. The leaves of T. chebula were collected, dried at room temperature and extracted with ethanol and evaporated with rotary evaporator. The discs were prepared by incorporating the desired concentration (10 µl) of extract individual and along with the antibiotics.

Results: Etahnolic extract of T. chebula leaves has shown highest activity against B. cereus with 20 mm of zone of inhibition. When combined to azithromycin it possessed highest synergistic effect against S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, S. lutea with 29 mm of zone of inhibition. When combined to ciprofloxacin it possessed highest synergistic effect against B. subtilis where the zone of inhibition was 32 mm.

Conclusion: This study reveals that T. chebula has antibacterial activity to both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This antibacterial activity is associated with the variety of phytochemicals found in this plant. The review also estimated the combination therapy of leaf extract with antibiotics towards revealing a new formulation of drug dosage form. Further studies should concentrate on the investigations of not only leaf but also the other parts of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Methanol Extract of Solanum melongena on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxic Rats

R. U. Hamzah, M. B. Busari, E. H. Omogu, M. B. Umar, A. N. Abubakar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23473

Aim: To evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Solanum melongena on carbon tetrachloride- induced liver damage in albino rats.

Methodology: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals screening of the plant extract were done using standard method. Liver function test such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in the serum of the rats at the end of the experiment. Likewise, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase were also determined.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as tannins (0.005±0.00 mg/g), saponins (0.64±0.03 mg/g), flavonoids (0.36±0.01mg/g) and alkaloids (0.036±0.00 mg/g). The activities of ALT, AST and ALP significantly increased (p>0.05) in CCl4 induced groups when compared to all treated groups. The administration of methanol extract of Solanum melongena at 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) and 1500 mg/kgbw decreased (p<0.05) the activity of ALT in the treated groups. The activity of SOD and CAT in the CCl4- induced group was decreased and this was significantly increased on treatment with the extracts at 500 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kgbw. However, methanolic extract of Solanum melongena at 1500 mg/kgbw showed a more significant increase in the activity of these enzymes. Also, increase in the level of MDA in CCl4 treated group was observed when compared with the normal group and this was decreased (p<0.05) on administration with methanol extract of Solanum melongena at 500 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kgbw.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that methanol extract of S. melongena possess important phytoconstituents and hepatoprotective activity. Thus, the extract possess potent therapeutic agent for the management of liver damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Essential Oils of Myrcia sylvatica (G. Mey.) DC.

Leomara A. da Silva, Sandra Layse F. Sarrazin, Ricardo B. Oliveira, Chieno Suemitsu, José Guilherme S. Maia, Rosa Helena V. Mourão

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/25494

Aims: The leaves of Myrcia sylvatica have traditional use in the control of dysentery and intestinal parasites for the riparian inhabitants who live in savanna areas along the Amazon River, Brazil.  

Methodology: The constituents of the oils (fresh and dried leaves) of this plant were identified by GC and GC-MS and submitted to antimicrobial analysis against diverse Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, using the disk-diffusion and plate microdilution assays.

Results: Sixty-three constituents were identified, with a significant predominance of sesquiterpenes belonging to the cyclization routes of the cariofilane, germacrane, cadinane and bisabolane groups, such as 1-epi-cubenol, ar-curcumene, cadalene, β-selinene, β-calacorene, cis-calamenene, ar-turmerol, muskatone, δ-cadinene, and cubenol. Based on the results, the oils can be considered bactericidal for Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus (0.2 ul/ml and 2.5 ul/ml, respectively) and bacteriostatic for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis (20.0 ul/ml, for both), all Gram-positive bacteria. The oils were not active for Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts tested.

Conclusion: The oil of Myrcia sylvatica could be used in pharmaceutical formulations to control resistant bacteria strains or to prevent food spoilage, individually or in combination with traditional antibiotic products.