Open Access Short Research Article

Anticancer Activity of Three Jamaican Macroalgae against Prostate, Pancreatic and Skin Cancers

Henry I. C. Lowe, Denise Daley, Charah Watson, Shelly-Ann Powell, Kenneth N. N. Ayeah, Ngeh J. Toyang, Joseph Bryant, Andrew S. Lamm

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23662

Aims: Cancer is one of the leading chronic diseases that may lead to death. The search for new therapeutic, medicinal and nutraceutical compounds from folkloric plants including the marine flora are globally important objectives. Therefore the biological assessment of macroalgae is critical.

Methodology: Three macroalgae, Galaxaura oblongata, Dictyota cervicornis and Halimeda incrassata were collected from the southern coast of Jamaica and assessed for their anticancer activity against prostate, pancreatic and skin (melanoma) cancers using PC-3, MiaPaca-2 and A375 cell lines respectively. The crude hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared and bio-assayed using the WST-1 cell proliferation assay.

Results: The results indicated that the crude ethyl acetate extract for three of the macroalgae; Galaxaura oblongata, Dictyota cervicornis and Halimeda incrassata; had significant activity against A375 cell line with IC50 values of 8.432, 7.48, 6.691 µg/ml respectively. No significant effect was observed against melanoma cells for neither the crude hexane nor the methanol extracts, as well as there were no significant effect on the prostate or pancreatic cell lines for all crude extracts.

Conclusion: These results indicate the potency and product potential of the edible marine macroalgae as a functional food and nutraceutical. This report represents the first scientific bioassay of the Jamaican species of these algae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Types of Herbal Medicine Used for HIV Conditions in Vihiga County, Kenya

Antony Omondi Radol, Michael Kiptoo, A. O. Makokha, Festus M. Tolo

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23180

Aim: To identify types of herbal medicine used for HIV conditions in Vihiga county, Kenya.

Study Design: Qualitative ethno botanical survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Hamuyundi sub-location, west Sabatia location, Sabatia Sub County, Vihiga County – Kenya. The study was carried out in December 2014.

Methodology: Information was obtained by interviewing Community health workers (CHW), as key informants using an interview schedule. Hamuyundi community was selected on basis of having the highest number of long serving CHW. All the 11 CHW were interviewed.

Results: Thirty six plant species belonging to 26 families were identified as medicine. The plant species with most consensus for specific conditions were Cassia occidentalis L. for malaria/fever at 36% and Justicia betonica (L.) for gastrointestinal conditions at 36%. Most plant species belonged to Solanaceae, Labiateae and Rubiaceae. The most mentioned conditions for which plant medicines were used were gastrointestinal and skin problems.

Conclusion: The majority of plants used by Hamuyundi community as medicine are supported by literature as used elsewhere or contain bioactive compounds. The low consensus on plants used as medicine for specific conditions shows the dynamic state of plant medicine application in HIV conditions. The use of leaves as plant parts for medicine preparation shows the preservation strategy of plant resources. The gastrointestinal and skin problems treated by majority of plant medicines are common HIV associated diseases.   

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analyses of the Volatile Oil Constituents of the Leaf of Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv (Apocynaceae)

Samuel Ehiabhi Okhale, Oluchi Roseline Igwe, Henry O. Egharevba, Grace Ugbabe, Jemilat A. Ibrahim, Oluyemisi Folashade Kunle

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23745

Aim: Evaluation of the volatile oil constituents of the leaves of Landolphia owariensis collected from Suleja, Niger State, North Central Nigeria in July 2015, where it is valued as an important medicinal plant used in folk medicines.

Methodology: Fresh leaves were hydrodistilled in an all-glass Clavenger apparatus and their chemical constituents were analyzed by GC-MS.

Results: The examined material contained 0.06% w/w of essential oil. A total of thirty-two compounds were identified in the essential oil, accounting for 86.33% of the oil composition. The main components of the essential oil were pentadecanal (13.63%), 1-dodecanol (6.32%), tetradecanol (5.83%), hexadecatrienal (5.62%), squalene (4.63%), β-ionone (3.25%), α-ionone (2.38%), supraene (3.01%), α-farnesene (3%), carophyllene oxide (2%) and (-)-spathulenol (1.78%).

Conclusion: Landolphia owariensis leaf essential oil could be used in pharmaceutical formulations or in perfumery and as a renewable source of pentadecanal and 1-dodecanol.



Open Access Original Research Article

Role of the Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus LAM) Ethyl Acetate Fraction on the Induction of Apoptosis vs. Downregulation of Survival Signaling Pathways in Cervical Cancer Cells

Achadiyani ., Leri Septiani, Ahmad Faried, Hendrikus Masang Ban Bolly, Dikdik Kurnia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24492

Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Papua and also as an agent against malignant diseases empirically. To elucidate the detailed mechanisms producing such an activity, the characterization and determination of the molecular mechanisms of its antitumor effects were conducted. The inhibitory activities against cervical cancer cell proliferation and the expression levels of corresponding molecules were investigated using human cervical cancer cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of red fruit extract (EtOAc RF). The EtOAc RF possessed strong anti-proliferation activities against HeLa and CaSki cells. Furthermore, the down regulation of the expression of phosphorylated Akt and mTOR in the cells was induced shortly after treatment with the fraction, followed by the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, p53 serine 46 and PARP along with the suppression of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and Akt–mTOR, leading to apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that red fruit extract could be a promising agent against cervical cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Equisetum ramosissimum

Hana Alebous, Mohammad Hudaib, Arwa Hudeb, Suzanne Sober, Rosianna Gray, Margaret Dean Johnson

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24513

Objective: To determine the chemical compositions of essential oil from the aerial parts of Equisetum ramosissimum (E. ramosissimum).

Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of E. ramosissimum was detected using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Chemical analyses detected thirty seven compounds.

Conclusions: α-bisabolol Oxide A (12.3%) and cuminaldehyde (9.8%) were identified as major constituents of the oil. Moreover, the presence of carvacrol was unusual as compared to other Equisetum spp. Given the ovicidal effect of carvacrol on neonate larva, further investigations are urged to question the toxicological effect of the essential oil of E. ramosissimum on reproductive health in animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy of 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Herbal Mouthrinses on Dental Plaque: An in vitro Comparative Study

Rupali Mahajan, Paramjit Kaur Khinda, Amarjit Singh Gill, Jyotinder Kaur, S. P. Saravanan, Akhilesh Shewale, Meenu Taneja, Vaibhav Joshi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23318

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and antimicrobial properties of a five herbal mouth rinses with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse in vitro in healthy and periodontitis patients with established dental plaque.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dental plaque samples were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy subjects and were streaked on blood agar plate. Well Diffusion method was used to compare 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, herbal mouthrinses [hiora, Punica granatum (Pomegranate), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Caryophyllus aromaticus (Cloves) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)] and distilled water. The streaked blood agar plate was incubated at 37° for 24 h and examined for the zones of inhibition.

Results: The present study resulted out statistically non significant differences between chlorhexidine, hiora and pomegranate (p>0.005). Statistically significant differences were observed between chlorhexidine, tulsi, clove and neem (p<0.005).

Conclusion: Herbal mouthrinses (Hiora and Pomegranate) and chlorhexidine mouthrinse were equally effective in vitro suggesting that the herbal mouthwash may be used therapeutically in the future to inhibit oral microbial growth.