Open Access Original Research Article

Achillea santolina: Growth Dependent Variation in Essential Oil Composition and Some in–vitro Bioactivity Studies

Hala I. Al-Jaber, Hana M. Hammad, Mahmoud A. Al-Qudah, Ismail F. Abaza, Jehan Y. Al-Humaidi, Dima F. Khater, Ayman M. Saleh, Mohammad Barham, Musa H. Abu-Zarga, Fatma U. Afifi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23870

Achillea santolina is used in Jordanian herbal traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, intestinal disorders, inflammations and for wound healing. 

Aims: The present study aimed at investigating the variation of the hydro-distilled oil composition extracted from fresh and air dried flowering parts of A. santolina collected at different growth stages. In addition, the antiplatelet and antiproliferative activities of the essential oil obtained from the air dried flowers were also investigated.

Study Design: The essential oils were extracted by hydro-distillation and their chemical composition was determined using GC/MS technique. The essential oil of the air dried flowers was evaluated for its inhibition of platelet aggregation caused by ADP and collagen. This oil was also assayed for its antiproliferative activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and PC-3 cancer cell lines.

Results: Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the main constituents in all plant samples. In the fresh plant, eucalyptol was the main constituent at the pre-flowering (18.05%), flowering (20.51%) and post flowering (14.70%), while in the dry plant samples, it dominated the pre-flowering (16.41%) and flowering (17.82%) stages with camphor (17.80%) at the post-flowering stage. The oil of the air dried flowering parts exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation caused by ADP and collagen, with the highest inhibition at concentration of 60 μg/ml (93.75±3.13; 91.67±4.17., respectively). No antiproliferative activity was detected at concentration1mg/ml against the tested cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and PC-3.

Conclusion: During the different growth stages, the essential oils of fresh and air dried flowering parts of A. santolina was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenoids. The hydro-distilled oil obtained from air dried flowers has shown a dose dependent antiplatelet activity on both ADP and collagen. This oil was inactive against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and PC-3 cancer cell lines at the stock concentrations of 1 mg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Phyllanthus acidus L. on Swiss Albino Mice

Md. Saddam Hossain, Seuly Akter, Yesmin Begum, Israt Jahan Bulbul

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/24361

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus acidus (Family: Phyllanthaceae) leaves on swiss albino mice.

Study Design: The extract was divided into two concentrations (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight) and was used for the examination of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities on swiss albino mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh, from July to December 2015.

Methodology: The analgesic activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing method, formalin induced paw licking method, tail immersion method and eddy’s hot plate method. Carrageenan induced hind paw edema was performed to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

Results: The extract exhibited significant (P < .001) inhibition of writhing at the dose 200 mg/kg body weight compared to control in acetic acid induced writhing method. In formalin induced paw licking method, both the early and late phases significantly (P < .001) increased analgesia in a dose dependant manner. The extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight was highly significant (P < .001) at 1h interval as compared to control in both tail immersion and eddy’s hot plate method and inhibited 52.94% and 50% analgesia respectively. In anti-inflammatory activity test, the crude extract was highly significant (P < .001) and inhibited inflammation with time in a dose dependant manner.

Conclusion: Our study reveals that P. acidus leaves extract possess significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and the dose 200 mg/kg body weight is more significant than 100 mg/kg body weight in all of the methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Contamination of Some Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations Available in Bangladesh

Md. Ranzu Ahmed, S. M. Z. H. Asna, M. S. H. Khan, Begum Rokeya, M. Mosihuzzaman, M. Abu Sayeed

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23556

Herbal Medicines (HM) are being used in our country for a long time but the  type and load of the microbial agents has not been isolated in locally produced finished products of HM. The present study was designed to assess the microbial load, genus & species of the microbes contaminating with HM. Seven different Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations (ADHPs) were purchased randomly and analyzed for microbial contaminants. Blood agar, Mac Conkey agar, Chocolate agar and Saboraud’s dextrose agar were used (Oxoid) for culturing and isolation of bacteria and fungus. Identification of organisms were done as standard ways. Total aerobic bacterial plate count was done as per the method of Brown, Poxton and Wilkinson. Out of 07 antidiabetic solid and liquid samples, except ADHP-3, Bacillus subtilis (3.5 – 4.0 x 104 cfu/g) was isolated from solid ADHPs and Enterococcus spp. (1.0x104 cfu/ml) was isolated from liquid ADHP, but all samples were free from fungi (yeasts and moulds). However presence of bacteria in these samples indicates the possibility of increased number of bacteria. So, the sample should be handled in any step maintaining standard sterility of the environment, instrument and involved personnel. The result of present study showed the contamination rate within tolerable level but the presence of bacteria in these samples was not desirable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for Immunological Diseases in Four Regions of Morocco

Amal EL Hamsas EL Youbi, Ibtissam Ouahidi, Latifa EL Mansouri, Abdeljlil Daoudi, Dalila Bousta

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/12946

Several ethnopharmacology studies have been conducted on medicinal plants used in traditional medicine to treat diseases related to digestive disorder, diabetes and hypertension etc. However, no study has focused on how the plants can be used to treat diseases related directly or indirectly to the immune system dysfunction.

The aim of this work is to study and to determine the therapeutic natural profile used in                         the Moroccan folk medicine to treat ten diseases related directly or indirectly to immune                   system dysfunction. Namely, Asthma, Allergy, Cancer, Eczema & Psoriasis, Hepatitis, Infectious diseases, Arthritis-rheumatoid, Rheumatism, inflammation pathologies and immune system depression.

Ethnobotanical interviews were conducted out in four regions of Morocco from April 2006 to June 2008. A total of 140 interviews were carried out about plants used for immune system dysfunction using a formulary support.

The data of this study led to identify 130 medicinal plants belonging to 116 genera and 52 botanical families in four regions of Morocco; Fez-Boulmane (FB), Meknes-Tafilalt (MT), Tanger-Tetouan (TT) and Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz (MTH). The best families represented were: Asteraceae 36.5%, Lamiaceae 25% and Apiaceae 19.23%. The total species plants used correspond to the following percentages; 16% to treat Allergy, 18% Arthritis-rheumatoid, 40% Asthma, 28% Cancer, 13% Inflammation, 32% Rheumatism, 22% Infections diseases, 31% Eczema & Psoriasis, 20% Hepatitis and 9% immune system depression. Of these species, 3.07% are endemic to Morocco, 18.46% are common weeds, 2.77% are semi-cultived and naturalized and the rest 75.7% are native to flora. The survey showed that leaves were the most used part. The majority of the traditional medications are prepared as decoction and infusion 29%. Globally, both modes of administration are used to treat diseases. Internal administration mode is presented by oral ingestion which is the most used route 76%. However, the external administration modes are highly used to treat some pathology such as Eczema and Rheumatism.

In conclusion, this study showed the pattern of single Moroccan herbs or herbal formulae that are used in treating ten diseases related to immune system dysfunction. Further, clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of plants for the treating of these pathologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Exogenous Growth Regulators on Direct and Indirect Micropropagation of Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell (Molluginaceae)

G. Uma, R. Prabakaran, K. Kalimuthu, V. Chinnadurai, V. Balasubramaniam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23430

Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell is a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Molluginaceae. In this study we have standardized a protocol for both direct and indirect micropropagation. Callus was induced from the leaf, node and internode explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP 4.44 μM) in combination with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 5.37 μM). 7.33 shoots were observed from callus while 32.16 shoots were observed during sub culture. In nodal culture 11.16, 34.16 number of shoots were obtained in initiation and subculture respectively on the MS medium supplemented with BAP (4.44 μM) and TDZ (2.27 μM). Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium along with NAA (16.05 μM) and activated charcoal (2 g/l). The rooted in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in shade house and successfully transferred to normal environment with higher survival rate (90.21%). The supplementation of growth hormones BAP and NAA enhanced the multiple shoot formation in direct and indirect micropropagation. Root formation is at the maximum in NAA and activated charcoal combination. Hence, the direct and indirect micropropagation of C. decumbens is more effective, reliable, reproducible and commercially viable than the conventional methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum on Antiretroviral Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Peter Ughachukwu, Paul Okonkwo, Cornelius Nwozor, Joseph Okafor, Ifeyinwa Nwafia

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23603

Aim: Hepatotoxicity, among other adverse effects, constitutes one of the greatest impediments to successful antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) in HIV/AIDS patients. The main objective of the study was to determine if the aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum has a protective effect on ART-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Place and Duration: Department of Pharmacology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu University, Nigeria (six months duration).

Methodology: Twenty five (25) albino rats of both sexes were divided into 5 groups of 5 each and treated as follows: Group A (no antiretroviral drugs, no extract); group B (antiretroviral drugs alone); group C (extract alone); group D (antiretroviral drug plus 40 mg/kg extract); group E (antiretroviral drug plus 80 mg/kg extract). All treatment lasted for twenty eight days. Blood samples were collected and serum ALT and AST determined using UV-spectrophotometer. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and their livers harvested and examined histologically. The mean (± S.E.M) of data were calculated and further analyzed for statistical significance using graph Pad Prism 5.0.

Results: Mean serum ALT were 35.6±6.4, 54.0±9.4, 53.8±22.9, 90.5±21.9, 86.5±13.9 and that of AST were 143.8±19.7, 205.2±14.9, 58.0±27.9, 162.3±41.4, 150.5±44.8 for groups A, B, C, D, and E respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean values of serum AST for group B and those for group C (p value of 0.016). However there was no statistically significant difference between the ALT values for the test and control groups of rats (p value > 0.999). Also, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean values of  AST for group B and those of groups A,  D, E (p value = 0.659). The histology report for the liver was normal for all groups.

Conclusions: This extract did not produce significant reduction of serum ALT and AST in ART-treated rats in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation and Phytochemical Analysis of Prosopis africana and Erythrina senegalensis Used against Immature Stages of Schistosoma haematobium

P. G. Rwang, J. P. Fabiyi, M. Suleiman, K. P. Mercy

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/17675

Seventeen groups of laboratory mice were infected with 200 cercariae of the helminth parasite, Schistosoma haematobium, per mouse, using the paddling technique. Mice in sixteen groups were subsequently treated with the plant extract of P. africana and E. senegalesis at weekly intervals while the seventeenth group was kept as infected control. A single oral dose of 40 mg/kg body weight was administered. The efficacy of the extracts against different ages of development of the disease was measure by mean percentage worm reduction; mean percentage reduction in tissue egg count and evaluation of hepatosplenic disease. The helminth parasite was highly susceptible to the extracts administered on days 0, 7, 14, 42 and 49 and showed cure with normal livers and spleens; however, mice treated on day 21, 28 and 35 with the extracts gave ineffective results’. Cure rate, given by percentage worm reduction, ranged from 96% - 98% and 94% - 96% for both Prosopis africana and Erythrina senegalensis respectively. The two plants showed anti-helminthic activity against urinary Schistosomiasis and phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Anthraquinones, Cardiac-glycosides, carbohydrates, and steroids, while terpenes were absent.