Open Access Short Research Article

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Litsea monopetala Leaves on Selected Pathogenic Strains

Md. Fakhrul Hasan, Mohammed Ashraful Iqbal, Md. Sahab Uddin

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23658

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of some solvent extracts of Litsea monopetala (LM) leaves.

Study Design: Examination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CLF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and crude methanol extract (CME) of Litsea monopetala (LM) leaves.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka-1213, Bangladesh, from September to November 2014.

Methodology: Fresh LM leaves were extracted with methanol followed by fractionation. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the crude extract were determined by using the Agar disk diffusion method against gram positive, gram negative bacterial and fungal strains.

Results: All tested plant extracts, showed varying zones of inhibition against bacteria and fungi tested. The zone of inhibition for bacteria was found to be in the range from 5 to 15 mm and 5 to 13 mm for fungi. The CME and EAF of the methanolic extract of LM has greater antibacterial activity against all tested gram positive and gram negative bacteria compare to other fraction. CME and EAF has also strong antifungal activity against tested fungi except Candida albicans in which CLF showed maximum antifungal activity.

Conclusion: The present study shows that LM leaves possess an excellent source of natural antibacterial and antifungal agents which could be developed in the treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases.


Open Access Original Research Article

Elemental Composition, Evaluation of Anti-nutrients, and Antioxidant Potentials of Morinda lucida

Osuntokun Oludare Temitope, F. A. Olajubu, T. A. Olorunnipa, O. A. Thonda

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23081

Morinda lucida is a tropical West African tree of medium-size, having brown colored bark, white flowers and yellowish ellipsoid seeds. It is widely used in traditional medicine systems of different countries. The preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts prepared from bark, leaves and seeds of M. lucida revealed the presence of Saponin, Tannins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, and Cardiac glucosides. Furthermore, it also reveals presence of Minerals like Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Zinc, Copper and Phosphorus were confirmed. Anti-nutrient were also present in appreciable percentage quantities. The anti-nutrients: Phytates, Oxalates and Saponins were present in different concentrations, Furthermore, the percentage of proximate content and in vitro antioxidant potential were also estimated in this current study. The purpose of this present study was to conduct elemental composition, evaluation of anti-nutrient and antioxidant properties of                 M. lucida.


Open Access Original Research Article

Amelioratory Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Moringa oleifera on Some Liver and Kidney Function and Oxidative Stress Markers in Lead-intoxicated Rats

Christian Ejike Onah, Samuel Chukwuemeka Meludu, Chudi Emmanuel Dioka, Anaelechi Jude Onuegbu, Chinwemma Florence Onah, Daniel Lotanna Ajaghaku, John Kennedy Nnodim, Obi Ejeatuluchukwu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23763

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera (MO) against lead acetate induced changes in some liver and kidney function parameters and oxidative stress markers in rats. Thirty six acclimatized Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six rats each (groups A-F). Different groups were exposed to 100 mg/kg lead acetate, different doses of MO, and combination of lead acetate and different doses of MO per oral (PO) for 6 weeks. Both their pre-treatment and post-treatment serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid as well as their post-treatment liver and kidney (homogenates) malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase (CAT) were estimated using standard methods. Lead acetate administration significantly increased the post-treatment levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and uric acid when compared with their pre-treatment and control levels (p<0.05). Lead acetate also significantly increased both liver and kidney MDA, but significantly decreased both liver and kidney SOD, GST and CAT (p<0.05). However, MO supplementation was associated with significant decreases in the levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, liver and kidney MDA and significant increases in the levels of both liver and kidney GST, SOD and CAT (p<0.05). This study showed lead induced changes in some liver and kidney function parameters as well as some oxidative markers of these organs and also revealed possible amelioratory effects to these changes after MO supplementation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Herbal Tea Blends from Ginger and Pavetta crassipes

J. S. Alakali, A. R. Ismaila, I. C. Alaka, J. Faasema, T. A. Yaji

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23706

Tea-like product (green tea) was developed using ginger (Zingiber officinale, Rose) and Pavetta crassipes k. schum blends. Samples were blended in the following ratios (ginger/pavetta): 100/0 (sample A), 80/ 20 (sample B), 60/40 (sample C), 40/60 (sample D) and 20/80 (sample E). The physicochemical, phytochemical, antinutritional and sensory properties of the formulations were investigated. Results showed that increase in Pavetta crassipes level in the formulation significantly (P < 0.05) increased protein (8.35 - 10.67), fat (4.6 – 6.31) and carbohydrate (17.99 – 47.38) contents. However, moisture content, ash content and crude fibre significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from 8.72 – 7.54, 1.96 – 1.67 and 58.13 – 26.43 respectively. The micronutrients including Ca increased significantly while Mg decreased with increased Pavetta crassipes. Vitamin C content also increases significantly. The supplementation of Pavetta crassipes leaf powder also decreased significantly (P < 0.05) the level of anti-nutrients including oxalates, total phenol and alkaloids while phytates content increased significantly (P < 0.05). Na2CO3, K2CO3 alkalinity and acid insoluble ash decreased significantly from 7.66 – 6.21, 11.23 – 8.32 and 57.93 – 27.36 respectively. There was no significant difference (p≤ 0.05) between all the samples and Lipton tea (sample F). Sample C were generally more accepted.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Monocarboxylate Transporters and Their Chaperone CD147 in Lactate Efflux Inhibition and the Anticancer Effects of Terminalia chebula in Neuroblastoma Cell Line N2-A

S. S. Messeha, N. O. Zarmouh, E. Taka, S. G. Gendy, G. R. Shokry, M. G. Kolta, K. F. A. Soliman

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23992

Aims: In the presence of oxygen, most of the synthesized pyruvate during glycolysis in the cancer cell of solid tumors is released away from the mitochondria to form lactate (Warburg Effect). To maintain cell homeostasis, lactate is transported across the cell membrane by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The major aim of the current investigation is to identify novel compounds that inhibit lactate efflux that may lead to identifying effective targets for cancer treatment.

Study Design: In this study, 900 ethanol plant extracts were screened for their lactate efflux inhibition using neuroblastoma (N2-A) cell line. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition for the most potent plant extract regarding monocarboxylate transporters expression, and consequences effects on viability, growth, and apoptosis.

Methodology: The potency of lactate efflux inhibition of ethanol plant extracts was evaluated in N2-A cells by measuring extracellular lactate levels. Caspase 3- activity and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect. The antiproliferative effect was measured using WST assay. Western blotting was performed to quantify protein expression of MCTs and their chaperone CD147 in treated cells lysates.

Results: Terminalia chebula plant extract was the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor in N2-A cells among the 900 - tested plant extracts. The results obtained show that extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (TCE) significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the expression of the MCT1, MCT3, MCT4 and the chaperone CD147. The plant extract was more potent (IC50 of 3.59±0.26 µg/ml) than the MCT standard inhibitor phloretin (IC50 76.54±3.19 µg/ml). The extract also showed more potency and selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells than DI-TNC1 primary cell line (IC50 7.37±0.28 vs. 17.35±0.19 µg/ml). Moreover, TCE Inhibited N2-A cell growth (IG50 = 5.20±0.30 µg/ml) and induced apoptosis at the 7.5 µg/ml concentration.

Conclusion: Out of the 900 plant extracts screened, Terminalia chebula ethanol extract was found to be the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor with the ability to inhibit chaperone CD147 expression and impact the function of monocarboxylate transporters. Furthermore, TCE was found to have growth inhibition and apoptotic effects. The results obtained indicate that Terminalia chebula constituent(s) may contain promising compounds that can be useful in the management of neuroblastoma cancer.


Open Access Review Article

Importance of Alangium salviifolium and Its Pharmacological Update

Keyur Panara, Pawan K. Singh, Pooja Rawat, Vivek Kumar, Momin Maruf, Kanti Patel, R. K. Ravikumar, Vipin Kumar

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23899

Plant based traditional and indigenous medicines are used globally for the treatment of various diseases. About 80% of the world population relies on plants and their products for primary health care. The plant Alangium salviifolium has been in use traditionally for treatment of various ailments. Almost every part of this plant including roots, leaves, stem and bark are used in the Ayurveda and Siddha system of medicines for treatment of various diseases. In modern scientific literatures, the plant has been reported to have potential efficacy against hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, inflammation, etc. It is reported to contain various biologically active phytochemicals such as alangine, ankorine, tubulosine, alangicine, salsoline etc.

Aims: The present review highlights traditional uses of different parts of Alangium salviifolium, its phytochemical constituents with therapeutic activity, translational research on the plant and the evidence based studies on various pharmacological effects of the plant.

Place and Duration of Study: Value Addition Research and Development, Division of Human Health, National Innovation Foundation-India and Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions (SRISTI), Ahmedabad, India between October, 2015 to December, 2015.

Methodology: A review of literature was carried out using several resources through online internet searches, including scientific databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, etc.

Results: Alangium salviifolium is a widely distributed plant with a number of reported traditional uses. Several phytochemicals including alangine, ankorine, tubulosine, alangicine, salsolin etc. have been characterized in different parts. The phytoconstituents isolated from the plant have been shown to be associated with a number of biological effects demonstrating the therapeutic potential.

Conclusion: Due to amplified acceptance and use of traditional plants, stringent scientific validation studies are being carried out worldwide, to develop evidence based phyto-medications. Alangium salviifolium is an excellent medicinal plant which holds numerous bioactive phytochemicals. Evidence based scientific studies have been reported against hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, inflammation, ulcer, etc. Various plant parts have been found to possess biological activity more specifically towards overcoming metabolic ailments. Mere scientific evidences of activity of the extracts will not create the solutions, rather studies should focus on developing contemporary formulations after extensive analysis of its bioactivity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, safety, etc. using appropriate animal models followed by clinical trials. Substantial research has already been conducted on this plant during last few decades, which can be used by scientists in developing useful therapeutic solution from Alangium salviifolium.