Inhibitory Activity of Leaves Extracts of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. On HT29 Human Colon Cancer Cells
European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Aims: Citrullus colocynthis is a plant endemic in Asia, Africa and in the Mediterranean basin. It is used in folk medicine against infections, inflammations and cardiovascular and immune-related diseases. There are further evidences of the use of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad in the treatment of cancer in traditional practices. The present study aimed to determine the potential antiproliferative effects of different Citrullus colocynthis leaf extracts on human cancer cells.
Methodology: Antiproliferative and antioxidant effects on HT-29 human colon cancer cells were detected by MTS assay and a modified protocol of the alkaline Comet assay. In vitro antioxidant activities of different leaf extracts were evaluated through DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power assays.
Results: The leaf chloroform extract exhibited the higher cell growth inhibitory activity without induction of DNA damage; it showed to be able to significantly decrease DNA damage induced by H2O2 (100 μM). This antioxidant activity seems to be comparable to that of vitamin C (1 mM). Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts showed to be the most effective in reducing the stable free DPPH radical (IC50 =113 μg/ml), in transforming the Fe3+ to Fe2+ (IC50 = 134 µg/ml) and in inducing linoleic acid oxidation with an inhibition of 31.9 %.
Conclusion: Our results confirm the antiproliferative potential of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. on human cancer cells.