Open Access Original Research Article

Potential action of Andrographis paniculata against Chronic Ethanol Consumption Induced Liver Toxicity in Experimental Rats

S. Vetriselvan, Anil Middha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22870

Objective: To determine the ameliorative potential of methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata to ethanol induced wistar rats, and its possible mechanism of action. Chronic ethanol consumption is a major risk factor in determining liver disease and modulates the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism.   

Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group), and fed with a standard diet, ethanol, and ethanol supplemented with extracts for 6 weeks. The ethanol changes were determined via a serum enzyme profile and damage in tissues of the liver. Liver toxicity was assessed by means of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and a liver histopathological investigation.

Results: Oral administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract of A. paniculata (MEAP) offered a significant (P=0.05) dose dependent protection against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity.

Conclusions: The present study revealed that MEAP in the phytochemical constituents plays an active role against enzymes elevation and liver protection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of the Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora and A. parviflora) Linalool-rich Oils from the Amazon

Sandra Laise F. Sarrazin, Ricardo B. Oliveira, José Guilherme S. Maia, Rosa Helena V. Mourão

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22901

Aims: Evaluation of antibacterial activity and essential oils composition from rosewood species (Aniba rosaeodora and A. parviflora), sampled in an experimental plantation on Lower Amazon River, Brazil, were performed between July 2014 and June 2015. Rosewood species are threatened with extinction in the Brazilian Amazon.

Methodology: GC and GC-MS analyzed the oils and the in vitro antibacterial potential was determined against Escherichia coli, Klesbsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureusS. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes, using the disk-diffusion and plate microdilution assays.

Results: Showed that linalool was the principal constituent of the oils, being 88.6% and 45.0% to A. rosaeodora and A. parviflora, respectively. The oils were effective against these pathogenic bacteria, with inhibition zone values ranging from 8.8±0.6 mm to 38.4±1.4 mm (MIC, 1.3 to 10.0 µL/mL) for the oil of A. rosaeodora and 9.2±0.4 mm to 15.4±0.9 mm for the oil of A. parviflora. The bactericidal effect and the intensity have been assigned to linalool and its percentage content in the oils. Assays performed with the aqueous extracts showed no activity against the same bacteria.

Conclusion: The rosewood oils could be used in pharmaceutical formulations or to prevent food spoilage to control resistant bacteria strains, individually or in combination with traditional antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Five Selected Medicinal Plants in Tanzania against Gram Negative Bacteria

Elibariki Eliangilisa Kowero, Cecilia Leweri, Musa Chacha

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22695

Aims: To evaluate antibacterial activity from five selected medicinal plants namely Embelia schimperi, Maerua decumbens, Ocimum gratissimum, Conyza floribunda and Plectranthus barbatus used for the management of bacterial infections in Tanzania.

Study Design: In vitro antibacterial activity was carried out by using 96 well microplates method.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected in three region of Tanzania namely Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Dodoma. Extraction and antibacterial assay was conducted at School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Tanzania, between February and June 2015.

Methodology: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plants extracts against the tested Gram negative bacteria was determined by using 96 well microdilution methods.

Results: Plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC range of 1.56 mg/mL to >25 mg/mL. About 36% (8) of extracts, out of 22 extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity with MIC of 1.56 mg/mL against K. oxytoca, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, E. coli and S. typhii. The inter-species activity comparison indicated that antibacterial activity of the evaluated plant species are in order of Conzya floribunda ˃ Plectranthus barbatus > Maerua decumbens > Embelia schimperi and Ocimum gratissimum. The Conyza floribunda extracts exhibited a narrow range antibacterial activity (MIC of 1.56 to 6.25 mg/mL) compared to the rest of plant species in this study.

Conclusion: The highest inhibitory effects exhibited by C. floribunda root chloroform, O. gratissimum leaf methanolic and O. gratissimum flower ethyl acetate extracts against at least two bacteria strains validates the traditional uses of these plants for the management of infections caused by Gram negative bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plants Used to Control Mosquitoes and Treat Mosquito Related Diseases in Maasai-land of Longido District, Tanzania

Ester Innocent, Suzana Augustino, William Kisinza

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23214

Aim: This paper provides an understanding of the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used to control mosquitoes and handle mosquito related diseases among the Maasai living in Olmolog and Engarenaibo division of Longido district, Arusha, Tanzania.

Methods: Data were collected between March, 2014 to March, 2015 through semi-structured questionnaires involving male and female heads of the households (Bomas), participant observations, as well as focus group discussions (FGD) with knowledgeable tribe leaders (Leingwenanis) and other key informants in the area. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science and Ms Excel computer software tools. A total of 174 participants were interviewed on the use of ethno-medicine to control mosquitoes and treat mosquito related diseases.

Results: About 35% of the respondents indicate to use treated bednets while 41% of interviewed respondents mentioned to use combination of methods including keeping home premises clean, followed by only a few (2%) who claimed to use repellent plants/herbs. Knowledge on medicinal plants used for malaria remedies was immense, and seemed to be a preferred treatment before consulting medical personnels. This was evident in FGD where the Maasai communities indicated to rely more  on malaria parasite treatment by taking some herbal remedies that clears the parasites in the blood than using plants for controlling/killing mosquitoes. Majority of respondents were aware of diseases caused by mosquitoes with frequency mention of malaria (75%). Tagetes minuta (Nang’ongudeyo), Cynodon plectostachyus (Emurua) and Azadirachta indica (Mwarobaini) were frequently metioned as mosquito repellent plants and obtained from the study areas. Likewise, Salvadora persica (Oremit/Mswaki) and Osyris abyssinica (Olesai) were highly ranked as effective anti-malarial plants.

Conclusion: There is great need to conserve the documented plant species used in control of mosquitoes and treat mosquito related diseases in the area concurrently preserving the indigenous knowledge amidst a rapidly changing Maasai society as well as unpredicted climate changes.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-bacterial Effects of Jatropha curcas on Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium Isolated from Presumptive Typhoid Fever Patients in Akure Metropolis, Nigeria

O. E. Ajayi, S. I. Awala, F. N. Okogbue, A. G. Ogunleye, T. O. Adeyeye

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23308

Aim: The present study determined the in-vitro anti-bacterial effects of Jatropha curcas on Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from presumptive typhoid fever patients in Akure metropolis, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study evaluated the prospective use of J. curcas as an alternative to conventional drugs in the treatment of typhoid fever and gastroenteritis.

Place and Duration of Study: Five selected hospitals within Akure metropolis in Ondo State, Nigeria were used for the study. The study was conducted between June and September, 2015.

Methodology: Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from two hundred (200) blood samples collected from presumptive typhoid fever patients attending Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) Health Centre, First Mercy, Don-Bosco, Sijuade and Skye hospitals in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria using selective media. Their identities of the isolates were verified using conventional microbiological techniques. The antibacterial effect of methanolic, acetone and N-hexane extracts of the plant leaves on Salmonella Typhi and S. Typhimurium isolates were thereafter evaluated. Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening were performed on the leaf extracts. Antibiotics susceptibility profile of the isolates was also assessed using commercial antibiotics.

Results: Highest zone of inhibition (20.00±0.58 mm) was observed with the hexane extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml, while the least (2.00±0.58 mm) was observed with the methanolic extract at concentrations of 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml respectively for the S. Typhi isolate. Highest zone of inhibition (25.00±0.58 mm) was however observed with the hexane extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml and the least (1.00±0.58 mm) at a concentration of 6.25 mg/ml for same isolate. S. Typhimurium was inhibited at all concentrations by the methanolic and hexane extract of J. curcas but resistant to the acetone extract. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as steroids, alkaloids and saponins.

Conclusion: These findings showed that J. curcas is a promising source of reliable phytotherapy in combating salmonellosis.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Evaluation of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) in Albino Rats

Nora Usman, Raymond I. Ozolua, Dickson O. Uwaya, Blessing E. Osagiede, Ezekiel E. Ugiagbe

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/23779

Objective: Parts of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae) have been used extensively in ethnomedicine. Despite increasing popularity, there is paucity of information regarding its safety. We therefore evaluated the toxicological profile of the aqueous leaf extract.

Methods: Acute doses were administered and the animals were observed for signs and symptoms for 14 days. In the sub-acute evaluation, the rats were given oral doses of 0.5, 1 and 2.5 g/kg/day for 28 consecutive days after which hematological and biochemical analyses were done. Kidneys, livers, spleens, lungs and hearts of the rats were assessed histologically.

Results: There were no signs of toxicity up to an acute maximum dose of 10 g/kg. In the sub-acute evaluation, weight initially gained was lost by the 28th day but organ-to-body weight ratios were not significantly affected. Platelet count decreased significantly (P<0.001) but packed cell volume increased significantly (P<0.01) in the extract-treated groups. Alkaline phosphatase level increased significantly (P<0.01) in the group that received 2.5 g/kg/day. Plasma sodium decreased significantly (P<0.001) in all the extract-treated groups. The levels of other hematological parameters and enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) were not significantly altered. The levels of total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine and potassium also remained comparable with the control group. Histology showed acute tubular necrosis at the dose of 2.5 g/kg/day and acute lung inflammation and bronchopneumonia at all dose levels.

Conclusions: While low doses of the aqueous extract appear safe, the daily use of high doses above 0.5 g/kg may be injurious to health.