Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum in Diabetes-induced Myocardial Dysfunction in Rats

M. S. Agwaya, A. M. Nandutu, P. C. Vuzi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22137

Background: Control of glycaemia and hyperlipidemia are important objectives in preventing diabetes induced cardiac dysfunction.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum in myocardial dysfunctions associated with type-1 diabetes.

Place and Duration of the Study: The histopathological analysis was done in the pathology Laboratory College of Veterinary Medicine and Biosecurity, Makerere University while the biochemical studies were carried out in biochemistry laboratory Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Institute, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda. The study was done between January and December, 2014.

Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark aqueous extract was administered daily at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected before treatment, 14 and 28 days after repeated treatment and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Thin blocks of cardiac tissue were taken at the end of the experiment for histology evaluation.

Results: Injection of alloxan produced marked hyperglycemia and altered several biochemical parameters. Treatment with Zanthoxylum chalybeum significantly lowered (p<0.05) fasting glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in total cholesterol levels between the control groups and the Zanthoxylum chalybeum treated groups. Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract (400 mg/Kg body weight) significantly increased (p<0.05) HDL-Cholesterol after 28 days of repeated treatment, which was comparable to the normal control. Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract (400 mg/Kg body weight) also significantly decreased (p<0.05) the levels of triglycerides after 28 days of repeated treatment, which was comparable to the normal control. There was no significant difference in LDL-Cholesterol levels between the control groups and the Zanthoxylum chalybeum treated groups. In addition, histopathological changes also revealed the protective nature of the aqueous roots extract of Z. chalybeum against alloxan induced necrotic damage of cardiac tissues.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Zanthoxylum chalybeum is beneficial for the prevention of myocardial damage associated with type-1 diabetes.


Open Access Original Research Article

Telfairia occidentalis Leaf and Seed Extracts as Possible Preventive and Therapeutic Agents for Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Rotimi Sunday Ajani, Akinsola Raphael Akinyemi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22856

Aim: The efficacy of Telfairia occidentalis leaf and seed as herbal extracts in the management of induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Wistar rats was investigated.

Methodology: Fifty adult male Wistar rats in 10 equal groups were utilized for the study. BPH was induced in nine groups. One group, (CN) served as normal control and the last, (CI) as positive control. Groups ALC and ELC respectively had aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaf while ASC and ESC groups had the respective seed extracts. All these four groups had concurrent administration of the extracts. The groups ALP, ELP, ASP and ESP had the respective extract administered after induction of BPH. At the expiration of the experiment, blood samples were collected for leukocyte count and estimation of levels of antioxidants. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and the harvested prostate glands were processed for light microscopy.

Results: Groups ELC and ESP had significantly lower body weight change when compared with CI. The mean prostate weights (g) of ALP, ALC, ELC, ASC and ESC (0.09±0.02, 0.19±0.01, 0.17±0.02, 0.25±0.05 and 0.21±0.03) were significantly higher than that of CN. The MDA levels (µmol/mg) of ALP, ELP, ASP, ESP, ELC and ASC (9.51±1.20, 9.51±0.42, 10.21±1.03, 9.64±1.11, 7.85±0.66 and 9.06±1.37) were significantly lower than the positive control (CI) value (10.32±1.92) but markedly higher than that of CN (6.80±0.15). The glutathione peroxidase activities (µmol/mg) of ALP, ELP, ASP, ESP, ALC, ELC, ASC and ESC (5.80±0.25, 6.01±0.37, 5.95±0.17, 5.96±0.20, 6.07±0.11,6.12±0.14,6.07±0.10 and 6.10±0.25) were significantly higher than that of group CI (5.66±0.19 ) but lower than CN (6.71±0.09). The catalase activities (µmol/mg) of ALP, ELP, ASP, ESP, ALC, ELC, ASC and ESC (1.60±0.12, 1.56±0.17, 1.68±0.13, 1.68±0.13, 2.40±0.45, 4.28±0.37, 2.42±0.42 and 2.40±0.40) were significantly higher than that of group CI (1.20±0.16) but lower than CN (4.70±0.20). For superoxide dismutase  (µmol/mg); the groups ALP, ELP, ASP,ESP, ALC,ELC ,ASC and ESC levels were significantly higher than CI but lower than CN (0.21±0.03, 0.21±0.02, 0.22±0.03, 0.18±0.04, 0.33±0.01, 0.33±0.04, 0.28±0.02 and 0.21±0.00; vs 0.03±0.01; vs 0.53±0.10).

The histology of the prostate gland of the CI group showed marked epithelial and stromal hyperplasia typical of BPH. Similar degree of hyperplasia could be seen in the ELC while the remaining three concurrent groups (ASC, ESC and ALC) showed lesser degree of epithelial and stromal hyperplasia.

Conclusion: The study findings are: (1) Telfairia occidentalis extracts shrink the enlarged prostate gland. (2) Telfairia occidentalis extracts reduce the severity of the associated prostatitis. (3) Telfairia occidentalis (seed and leaf) ameliorate the testosterone effects. (4) Telfairia occidentalis (extracts) reduce the size of prostate with Benign Hyperpasia by prevention of oxidative stress. The seed and leaf of Telfairia occidentalis thus appear to have a positive role to play in the non surgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Phenolic Compounds of Ulva rigida (Chlorophycae) and Its Antioxidant Activity

Sana Mezghani, Dezső Csupor, Ines Bourguiba, Judit Hohmann, Mohamed Amri, Mohamed Bouaziz

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22935

Ulva rigida is a worldwide distributed green alga and is commenly used for human nutrition. Extracts of this seaweed were shown anti-hypercholestierinemic, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities. The antioxidant effect was often ascribed to the presence of a huge amount of polyphenols. The aim of this study was to characterise by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) the phenolic molecules present in extracts obtained from U. rigida. The antioxidant activities of different extracts were evaluated in vitro by DPPH assay and on HeLa cells culture.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Antiplasmodial Activity and Haematological Parameters of the Methanolic Extract of Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker Leaves on Plasmodium berghei berghei in Mice

F. B. Adewoyin, N. O. Omisore, A. B. Odaibo, C. O. Adewunmi, E. O. Iwalewa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22645

Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial effect of the methanol extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum polycephalum.

Study Design: In-vivo assay using albino mice. Three models were used: suppressive, prophylactic and curative.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Drug Research and Production Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria from October 2013 to June 2014.

Methodology: Antimalarial activities were evaluated using methanolic extract of Clerodendrum polycephalum and mice containing 1.0 × 107parasitized red blood cells. Suppressive, prophylactic and curative assays were done using 100 – 600 mg/kg body weight. Positive control mice received chloroquine 10 mg/kg in suppressive and curative assays while those of prophylactic received pyrimethamine 1.2 mg/kg body weight. In acute oral toxicity assay, three mice were sequentially dosed with 5000 mg/kg body weight at intervals of 48 hrs; observations were made on the nervous system. Sub-chronic oral toxicity of extract was assessed using Haematological parameters.

Results: At 100 – 600 mg/kg, prophylaxis and suppressive tests exhibited 57.46 – 91.56% chemosuppression and 57.86 -92.63% chemosuppression respectively. The curative test produced concentration dependent chemosuppression from day 3 – day 7; at 600 mg/kg, chemosuppression increased from 71.35 (day 3) to 86.37% (day 7). Positive controls significantly compared well with the activities of the extract (P=.05). By 10th day in acute oral toxicity assay, slight thinning of the fur in the anterior area and loss of appetite were observed. At the end of the assay period, no mortality was observed. Treated animals in the sub-chronic oral toxicity test showed slight decrease and then increase in body weight. Furthermore, slight differences were observed in the values of the haematological parameters (red blood cell count, packed cell volume, haemoglobin estimation) compared to the control (P= .05).

Conclusion: The study corroborates the ethnomedicinal use of Clerodendrum polycephalum as a potent antimalarial remedy. Its use should be encouraged as an alternative to conventional antimalarial drug. 


Open Access Review Article

A Review on Iranian Carum copticum (L.): Composition and Biological Activities

Bahman Fazeli-nasab, Ziba Fooladvand

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/17584

Aims: This paper examined thoroughly chemical composition and biological properties of Carum copticum.

Study Design:  Introduction on curtain characteristic of medicinal Ajowan (Carum copticum (L.)).

Place and Duration of Study: Center of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Zabol, 2015.

Introduction: Carum copticum medicinal plant with the scientific name of Carum copticum Heirn is belong to Umbelliferae family and Trachyspermum copticum genus and the Latin name of the species Ajowan is also similar to the local pronunciation Sistani ajqu. Herbaceous plants, annuals and native Sistan region that has existed since ancient times in the area of medication and had been  used to therapy; Carum copticum is wild in eastern India, Iran and Egypt, and in the same area as many points with the same weather were cultured. The plant's most important ecological regions in Iran, Sistan and Baluchistan, Azerbaijan, Isfahan, Khuzestan, Fars, Kerman and Khorasan.

Conclusion: The fruits of this plant essences 4%, and that's the most important ingredient thymol, 45 per cent. The main object of this essential oil contains as much as 5.22 percent γ-terpinen,                  p-cymene rate of 22 percent, and other compounds such as α-pinene, Cymene, limonene, Pinene, Dipentene, Terpinene and Carvacrol with smaller amounts of oil. Ajowan or plant seeds are antispasmodic, tonic, stimulant, carminative and is commonly used in making linoleum that enters for pain relief. Crushed and taken internally as a remedy to relieve stomach disorders, liver and throat problems, cough, rheumatism administered. Ajowan is rich source of thymol, known antiseptics, carminative, and tonic, strengthen the stomach, as well as to interrupt acute abdominal pain or diarrhea, relieve indigestion, colic and prescribed medication abuse. The root decoction is also used as a diuretic and carminative and also Ajowan can be against some microbes such as Salmonella Typhosa, Micros-Porum Progenies and Escherichia effect. In addition, Carum copticum products in powder form, Deodorant, ointments, lotions and solutions offered in the market.


Open Access Review Article

Natural Medicines Enhancing Neurite Growth in Central Nervous System Disorders: A Review

M. Sudha, R. Shanmuga Sundaram, V. Annapondian, B. R. Abhirama, Babitha K. Vazhayil, S. Gomathi, C. Geethapriya, Deepika Patel

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21881

Aim: This review provides attention to different species of plants protecting neurons and enhancing neurite growth.

Methodology: Datas regarding the global burden of neurological disorders along with the use of different parts of the plant which provides traditional healing effect existing in some parts of the World were collected from studies carried out by several researchers.

Summary of Review: The phytochemical exploration of indigenous flora provided hundreds of CNS active plants covering the whole spectrum of activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects. Many studies have shown data for enhancing neurite outgrowth beyond neuroprotection.

Conclusion: Plants with various phytoconstituents such as flavonoids provide a safe therapeutic solution in reducing the burden of neurological disorders.