European Journal of Medicinal Plants,
Background: Control of glycaemia and hyperlipidemia are important objectives in preventing diabetes induced cardiac dysfunction.
Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Zanthoxylum chalybeum in myocardial dysfunctions associated with type-1 diabetes.
Place and Duration of the Study: The histopathological analysis was done in the pathology Laboratory College of Veterinary Medicine and Biosecurity, Makerere University while the biochemical studies were carried out in biochemistry laboratory Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Institute, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda. The study was done between January and December, 2014.
Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark aqueous extract was administered daily at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected before treatment, 14 and 28 days after repeated treatment and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Thin blocks of cardiac tissue were taken at the end of the experiment for histology evaluation.
Results: Injection of alloxan produced marked hyperglycemia and altered several biochemical parameters. Treatment with Zanthoxylum chalybeum significantly lowered (p<0.05) fasting glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in total cholesterol levels between the control groups and the Zanthoxylum chalybeum treated groups. Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract (400 mg/Kg body weight) significantly increased (p<0.05) HDL-Cholesterol after 28 days of repeated treatment, which was comparable to the normal control. Zanthoxylum chalybeum root bark extract (400 mg/Kg body weight) also significantly decreased (p<0.05) the levels of triglycerides after 28 days of repeated treatment, which was comparable to the normal control. There was no significant difference in LDL-Cholesterol levels between the control groups and the Zanthoxylum chalybeum treated groups. In addition, histopathological changes also revealed the protective nature of the aqueous roots extract of Z. chalybeum against alloxan induced necrotic damage of cardiac tissues.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Zanthoxylum chalybeum is beneficial for the prevention of myocardial damage associated with type-1 diabetes.