Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic and Antioxidant Activity of Crude and Fractionated Extracts of Cynomorium coccineum Growing in Saudi Arabia

Jehan Al-humaidi

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18820

Aim: This study was carried out to determine the Total phenolic and antioxidant activity of crude and fractionated extracts of Cynomorium coccineum growing wild in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: Phytochemical analysis of the different extracts obtained from C. coccineum was carried out by Siddiqui et al procedure and the Total phenolic content of the extracts were assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method while the antioxidant activities were determined by two different assays, namely scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) cation radicals methods.

Results: Phytochemical screening of C. coccineum revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids in all different extracts. In the present study, the butanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (201.36±7.44 mg of GAEs/g of extract) and showed the strongest antioxidant activity in both, the DPPH radicals and ABTS methods. The antioxidant activity of the butanol extract for DPPH scavenging assay was 95.20%±3.48% (IC50 0.0056 mg/mL) while for ABTS radical scavenging assay was 99.07±0.37 (IC50 0.006 mg/mL) at concentration 0.4 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The high phenolic content in the polar extract accounts for the high antioxidant potential in comparison to non-polar extract. The results of this study substantiates the role of these plant as natural sources of antioxidants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Ocimum canum (L.) Essential Oil against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

Shola K. Babatunde, Racheal M. Adedayo, Elizabeth A. Ajiboye, Sunday Ojo, Israel B. Ajuwon

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21673

Background: Malaria is a serious health problem in many countries of the world especially sub-Saharan African. Anopheles mosquito which is the vector of this disease has developed resistance against synthetic pyrethroids which are the main stay of insecticide treated bed nets. The development of insecticide resistance and side effects associated with synthetic pesticides has triggered intense research efforts towards natural products.

Aim: This study aimed at investigating quality and quantity of phytochemical constituents of Ocimum canum leaf extract and determined larvicidal effect of essential oil component of this plant extract on 3rd instar larvae stage of Anopheles gambiae.

Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger type apparatus. Standard methods previously described by other authors were used to determine the quality and quantity of phytochemical components of the plant and larvicidal bioassay method was used to determine the effect of essential oil of O. canum on the mosquito larva.

Results: The analysis of the phytochemical revealed the presence of the following compounds: Tannin, phenol, saponin, trepenoid, alkaloid, steroid, and flavonoid, with the following quantities 22.14, 19.83, 14.08, 10.97, 8.16, 3.40 and 5.29 mg/g respectively. The mosquito larvicidal bioassay showed LC50 and LC90 values of 49.51 and 103.54×10-3 mg/ml respectively after 24 hours exposure to essential oil extract.

Conclusion: The results obtained showed that the essential oil of O. canum is a promising mosquito larvicidal compound.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Manna on Blood Bilirubin Level in Neonates with Hyperbilirubinemia and Identification of Its Constitutes

Mohammad Rahimi-Madiseh, Majid Hamidi, Soleiman Kheiry, Abdolreza Rezaeian-Ramesheh, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21909

Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common problems in 60% of term infants and 80% of preterm infants. In the case of severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia, it can cause neurotoxic disorders, however, the direct hyperbilirubinemia is considered as severe or systemic problems of liver. Phototherapy and in more severe condition the exchange transfusion are the main treatments that can be used to treat infant jaundice. In traditional medicine manna is also used orally to treat jaundice in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of manna on blood bilirubin levels in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia.

Materials and Methods: In this clinical-trial study, a total of 124 neonates with non-hemolytic indirect hyperbilirubinemia, were randomly assigned into four groups (three experimental groups and one control group). The experimental groups were: (A) both mother and neonate respectively recipient 30 cc and 1 cc/kg of the 25% manna solution and phototherapy, (B) only mother recipient of the manna and phototherapy and (C) only neonate recipient of the manna and phototherapy. Control group receiving phototherapy with distilled water. Bilirubin levels were measured at the baseline of experiment and then daily during the experimental period.

Results: The results showed that the amount of bilirubin and days of hospitalization had no significant difference among different groups (p˃ 0.05) and the administered manna solution at these doses had no effect on neonatal bilirubin.

Conclusion: According to the results of the project, the prescribed doses of manna solution had no effect on neonatal bilirubin. Therefore, it must be used cautiously in infants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological and Reversibility Assessment of Dalbergia saxatilis Root Extract on Body and Organ Weights, Hepatic Functions and Peroxidation in Rats

Omoniyi K. Yemitan, Olufunmilayo O. Adeyemi, Matthew C. Izegbu

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21479

Aims: The aqueous root extract of Dalbergia saxatilis (DS) was investigated for its effects on the body and vital organs weights, liver toxicities and oxidative stress markers after 90 days treatment and 14 days reversibility in rats, with a view to ascertaining its safety claims.

Study Design: The study was 90 days subchronic toxicity test, followed by 14 days reversibility studies on Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Place and Duration of Study: Toxicology Unit Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria, and Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, between December 2007 and May 2012.

Methodology: Rats of both sexes were given daily doses of DS (40, 200 or 1000 mg/kg) for 90 days, during which the body weights were measured weekly. After 90 days, weights of vital organs- heart, kidneys, liver, lungs & spleen were measured; biochemical parameters- ALP, AST, ALT, bilirubin and uric acid were measured from blood, and oxidative stress markers- MDA, GSH, SOD & CAT were determined from liver and spleen tissues. Histopathological assessment of hepatocytes was also done. Additional 14 days reversibility tests were also carried out.                                                                   

Results: There was significant (P = .05) body weight gain per week at 40 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg DS groups. Significant increases were also recorded in liver weight of female rats at 1 g/kg and spleen at 200 mg/kg for female & 1 g/kg for rats of both sexes. ALP was significantly elevated in female rats at 200 mg/kg, and in both sexes at 1/g/kg; direct bilirubin was elevated at 1 g/kg in both sexes; whereas LDH was elevated in female rats at 1 g/kg. Significant elevation of CAT, SOD & GSH, and significant lowering of MDA were recorded for female rats at 1 g/kg. Histopathology of the liver revealed lesions at DS dose of 1 g/kg.

Conclusion: The extract might cause weight changes, reversible splenotoxicity and irreversible hepatotoxicity in females, during prolonged oral use at 1 g/kg.


Open Access Original Research Article

Lantana camara L. Aqueous-methanolic Extract Provides Potent Red Blood Cell Membrane Fortification against Plasmodial Attack

L. B. George, U. U. Joshi, D. V. Jani, S. D. Guleria, H. N. Highland

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22357

Aim: The aim of our study was evaluation of the possible anti-plasmodial efficacy of Lantana camara L. extracts, with specific emphasis on its role in stabilization of the RBC membrane.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology, BMT and Human Genetics, Gujarat University, Gujarat, India, between December-2014 to May- 2015.

Methodology: In the present study, we have tested the In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous-methanolic extract (fraction VIII) of leaves of Lantana camara L. against MRC-2 (CQ-sensitive) and RKL-9 (CQ-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity test on HeLa cell line was evaluated using the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthyazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test in order to determine the selectivity index.

Results: According to the results, the aqueous-methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Lantana camara L. manifested potent anti-oxidant activity. The fraction VIII of aqueous-methanolic extract showed 48.0±0.12% and 35.0±021% (MRC-2 and RKL-9 respectively) inhibition of entry of parasite in the RBCs at 7.81 µg concentration. Qualitative tests revealed the presence of various phytocomponents in the leaves of Lantana camara L. that may be responsible for the In-vitro activity of the plant.  

Conclusion: On the basis of the study it can be concluded that leaves of L. camara L. are rich sources of a vast quanta of secondary metabolites/ phytocomponents which can provide leads to a potent prophylactic drug against malaria.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-ulcer Activity of Ethanol Root Extracts of Cassia sieberiana D.C. in Albino Rats

H. Bello, Z. Mohammed, U. A. Katsayal

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22655

Aims: The study was aimed at investigating the anti-ulcer activity of Cassia sieberiana fractionated root extracts using ethanol induction model in laboratory rats.

Study Design: This is an experimental laboratory report on phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and anti-ulcer investigations that will provide scientific information on ulcerogenic potential of Cassia sieberiana root.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out at the Department of Pharmacognosy/ Drug Development and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria from April, 2012 to February, 2013.

Methodology: Cassia sieberiana root were extracted with absolute ethanol for 48 h using cold maceration method .Reconstituted in aqueous solution, fractionated with ethylacetate and butanol. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical, toxicity experiment and anti- ulcer evaluation using ethanol – induced gastric ulcer in laboratory rats. A standard anti-ulcer agent, cimetidine was used as reference. The data were analyzed by one-way Analysis of Variance at (p<0.05). 

Results: The total solid recovered from crude extract of C. sieberiana root yielded 80 g. The extract was dark brown in color with pleasant smell and pasty inconsistency. The weight of various fractions determined were ethylacetate (14.01 g), butanol (9.98 g), Aqueous (7.80 g). Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of anthraquinone saponins, glycosides, tannins, steroid, flavonoids in the ethylacetate fraction. LD50 was above 5000 mg/kg and did not cause mortality in all the tested rats. Ethanol triggered severe gastric ulcers with mean ulcer index (53.8±2.4 mm) and pretreatment with C. sieberiana extracts of ethylacetate fraction (EAF) and n-butanol fraction (NBF) at (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent anti-ulcer activity with increase in percentage preventive index (72%, 91% and 100%) for EAF and (46%, 81%and 97%) for NBF fractions. cimetidine has 88% preventive index.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that C. sieberiana has anti-ulcer potentials and it justified the traditional uses of this plant root in ulcer treatment.