Open Access Short Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis, Cytotoxic and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Erythrina variegate Bark

Mohammad Shahriar, Nishat Zareen Khair, Zara Sheikh, Sayeeda Fahmee Chowdhury, Md. Kamruzzaman, Md. Shawkatul Islam Bakhtiar, Sharmin Jahan Chisty, Syeda Najah Narjish, Rumana Akhter, Nahia Akter

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18866

Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of the bark extracts of Erythrina variegate.

Place and Duration of Study: The plant, E. variegate was collected from Botanical Garden, Mirpur, Dhaka and also from Curzon Hall, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh in June 2014 and then the sample was identified by the National Herbarium of Bangladesh, Mirpur, Dhaka (DACB; Accession Number- 36148).

Methodology: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done for determining the nature of phytoconstituents. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay technique was done to study the cytotoxic properties. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was applied for the determination of flavonoids and the total antioxidant ability was assessed by the phospho-molybdenum method.

Results: Primary phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, glycosides and flavonoids. The extracts showed some toxicity to A. salina with LC50 values ranging from 1.41 to 3.66 μg/ml which was compared with standard vincristine sulphate (VS, LC50 value 0.92 μg/ml). n-Hexane extract of E. variegate was found to contain highest amount of flavonoids (3.77±1.97 mg/gm; quercetin equivalent) and ethanol extract of E. variegate was found to have highest antioxidant acitivity (2.03±0.09 mg/gm ascorbic acid equivalent).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the plant extracts of E. variegate possess several antioxidant activities which justifies its use as folk medicine.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Extracts on Phlebotomus duboscqi

Mong’ are Samuel, Ng’ang’a Zipporah, Ngumbi Philip, Johnstone Ingonga, Ngure Peter

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/22241

Aims: To evaluate the Ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) extracts on Phlebotomus duboscqi.

Study Design: A comparative experimental design using extracts obtained from the leaf and bark of Ricinus communis plant.

Study Site: Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development (CBRD), Nairobi Kenya from January to July, 2015. 

Methodology: Aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from Ricinus communis plant. Freshly laid eggs were moistened with 1 ml of each extract separately during the incubation period. Larvae were also fed on larval food mixed with the powdered crude extract and a second group was fed on larval food sprinkled with 5 ml of each extract daily.

Results: No significant difference when bark and leaf extracts were compared (P=0.061). 250 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml of extract eroded all the chorionic membranes of the egg shell while egg hatchability was significantly inhibited with only 7%, 9% and 26% of eggs hatching at 500 µg/ml of aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts respectively (P<0.001). 100% larval mortality noted when at 500 µg/ml methanol extract. The larval period was prolonged to 87 days with the life cycle lasting for 101 days.

Conclusion: R. communis extracts have deleterious effects on hatching of eggs, larval and pupal development and adult emergence of P. duboscqi; hence R. communis should be used against sand flies and Leishmania in situ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suppression of Inflammatory Mediators by the Ethanol Extract of Crotalaria verrucosa L. leaf – in vivo and in vitro Analysis

Kashfia Nawrin, Mohammad Mustakim Billah, Mohammed Sahek Ullah Jabed, Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil, Md. Main Uddin, Md. Nurul Islam

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21894

Objective: The present study demonstrated the potential of Crotalaria verrucosa L., a widely used medicinal plant of Bangladesh, ethanolic leaf extract in inhibiting the cascades of inflammation.

Methods: Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and xylene induced mice ear edema tests were performed as in vivo assessment of anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, these methods were supported by the in vitro heat induced protein denaturation and haemolysis tests.

Results: In all experiments CVE extract shows moderate to significant efficacy. CVE 600 mg/kg significantly suppressed the biological response (edema) in comparison to both steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover in vitro study suggested that the leaf extract at doses of 300, 400 and 500 µg/ml possess moderate to high inhibition capacity for auto antigen production which exerts extract’s potential against Type III hypersensitivity.

Conclusion: All these data support the safe use of this plant traditionally. However, the extract is yet to be explored for responsible compounds and specific mechanisms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Antihypercholesterolemic, Cardioprotective and Vitamins E and C Sparing Properties of Bryophyllum pinnatum in Rabbits

Adeniran Sanmi Adekunle, Temitope Isaac Adelusi, Emmanuel Bukoye Oyewo, Jean- Paul Kamdem, Bright. B. Akintade

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/21823

Potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum in preventing excessive lipaemia and oxidation, hence reducing predisposition to chronic diseases was assessed. B. pinnatum supplement was prepared by macerating a known weight of the plant in a known volume of distilled water. Ten rabbits were used for the study and were equally grouped into 2. Rabbits in group 1 were given 0.1 ml of distilled water once daily for 60 days and they served as control animals. A dose of 0.1 ml containing 0.2 g/ml of B. pinnatum supplement was given to each of the rabbits in group 2 once daily for 60 days.  Bryophyllum pinnatum caused reduction in cholesterol concentration in serum, kidney, heart, intestine, brain and liver, while increased total lipids concentrations were observed in serum and kidney. B. pinnatum supplement reduced lipid peroxidation in heart, brain and liver. Administration of B. pinnatum caused increased glutathione reductase activity as shown by increased GSH concentration. Bryophyllum pinnatum demonstrated vitamins C and E sparing effects. Conclusively, B. pinnatum may be a good candidate as a nutraceutical.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Nigella sativa, Pimpenella anisum and Thymus vulgaris Mixture in Female Broiler Rations

Nafez A. Al-Beitawi, Safaa. S. EL-Ghousein

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/20687

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding crushed Nigella sativa (NS), Pimpinella anisum (PA) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) mixture as a natural growth promoter on growth performance, antibodies titer (Abs) and heamatological profiles of vaccinated and unvaccinated female broilers.

Study Design: A total of 400 one- day old Lohman female broiler chicks were weighed and divided into 4 treatments (4 replicates X 30 chicks each).

Place and Duration of the Study: female broiler chicks were raised in an open-sided house at Animal Research Centre at Jordan University of Science and Technology. The experiment lasted for 42- d of age.

Results: The statistical analysis prove that NS, PA and TV mixture significantly increased live body weight (LBW), body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR). Moreover, medicinal plants mixture increased Abs production against Newcastle (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and infectious bursal (IBD) diseases at 21- and 42- d of age. Meanwhile, 2% crushed NS, PA and TV mixture increased total WBC‘s Monocytes count Heterophils: lymphocytes ratio at 21- and 42- d of age.

Conclusion and Recommendations: In conclusion, our study clearly reveals that crushed NS, PA and TV mixture improves growth performance, Abs of female broilers. Therefore, it could be used as a natural growth promoter. It has been suggested that further studies be done on each active components of the studied medicinal plants.


Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility Pattern of Plasmid-borne Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Strains to Selected Nigerian Medicinal Plants

O. M. David, O. Famurewa

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/18279

Objective: To determine whether the presence of the resistance factors (plasmids and vanA genes) will negatively aid the susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VREf) to medicinal plants.

Materials and Methods: Standard methods were used for the isolation and identification of the E. faecalis while antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method. Extraction of the plasmid DNA was performed and identification of van genotype vanA was carried out by PCR. Anti-enterococcal activities of extracts of ten medicinal screened were determined by agar dilution test.

Results: All the vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis strains isolated were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and levofloxaxin. Eight out of the nine VREf starins possessed plasmid with the molecular size ranging from 6557 to 23130 base pairs. Also only four out of the ten test organisms possessed vanA gene. All the ten medicinal plants screened had tannins and saponin but lack phlobatanin and cardic glycoside. Entada africana followed by Uvaria chamae showed pronounced effect on the isolates while Sarcocephalus latifolius had the least effect on the bacteria. Chloroform extracts was the most effective among the three extracts of medicinal plants followed by ethanolic while acetone extracts showed the least effectiveness.

Conclusion: The VREf susceptibility to the medicinal plants seems not to be influenced by the presence of the plasmid and vanA gene. The isolation of the anti-enterococcal compounds from the plants and their mode of action are still open to investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Medicinal Plant Usage by Folk Medicinal Practitioners in Different Villages at Nalitabari Upazilla, Sherpur District, Bangladesh

Aysha Ferdoushi, Shahin Mahmud, Md. Masud Rana, Md. Shariful Islam, Abu Saim Al Salauddin, Mohammed Farhad Hossain

European Journal of Medicinal Plants, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/EJMP/2016/19012

Medicinal plants are an important and often the only component in the formulations used by the folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. Folk medicinal practitioners, well known as Kavirajes, form the primary line of health-care among a substantial section of the rural and urban population of Bangladesh. They rely on administration of medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. Since the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes differ widely even between adjoining areas, the objective of the present study was to conduct an survey among the  selected Kavirajes of different villages at Nalitabari Upazilla situated in Sherpur district, Bangladesh. A semi structured questionnaire and the guided field walk method was used to obtain data from selected Kabirajes. Plant specimen as pointed out by them were collected and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. It was observed that the Kavirajes of the selected areas used a total of 115 plants distributed into 68 families for treatment of various ailments. Of the total 160 uses found in the present survey, leaves formed the most frequently used plant part (26.87%), followed by fruits (18.12%), seeds (16.25%), roots (13.75%), stems (11.27%), flower (6.23%), bark (5%) and whole plant (2.6%). Most of cases, a single plant part was used for treatment of any given ailment. Most of the plants were used to treat common ailments such as respiratory tract problems, gastrointestinal disorders, fever and loss of hair, vomiting, menstrual problems, skin disorders, dental diseases, cracked foot, bleeding, insect bites and bone fracture. However, a number of plants were also used to treat more complicated ailments like cardiovascular disorders, hepatic disorders, mental disease, epilepsy, piles, leprosy, diabetes and cancer or tumors.